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    Add as FriendAnatomy of Uterus

    by: sutha

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    1 : ANATOMY OF UTERUS Presented By Mrs. R. Sutha M.Sc(N)., Lecturer, Rass Academy College Of Nursing, Poovanthi, Madurai, (TN)
    2 : STRUCTURE Uterus is a hollow muscular pear-shaped organ. Position: Lies in pelvic cavity between bladder and rectum. Leans forward (ante version) and bends forward (ante flexion). Measurement : It is about 7.5cm long, 5cm wide and 2.5cm thick. It weighs about 30-40gms
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    4 : RELATIONS Anterior: Utero-vesicular pouch and bladder Posterior Recto uterine pouch of douglas and rectum Lateral: Broad ligaments uterine tubes and ovaries Superior Intestine Inferior Vagina
    5 : SUPPORT The uterus is supported by pelvic floor and ligaments. Transcervical ligament (cardinal ligament, Mackenrodt’s) Extend from the sides of the cervix to the side wall of the pelvis. Uterosacral ligament Pass backward from the cervix to the sacrum. Pubocervical ligament Pass forward from the cervix to the pubic bones Broad ligament Formed from the folds of peritoneum which are drapped over the uterine tubes. Round ligament It arise from the cornua of the uterus in front of and pass between folds of the broad ligament through the inguinal canal. Ovarian ligament Also begins at the cornua of the uterus and behind the uterine tubes,pass down between the folds of broad lligament to the ovaries.
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    7 : PARTS
    8 : PARTS cont…… Fundus: Dom shape part of the uterus above the opening of uterine tube. Body Tapering centre portion Cervix Inferior narrow portion which opens into the external os. Cavity Interior of the body of uterus Isthmus Narrowest area between cavity and cervix Internal os Narrow opening between isthmus and cervix External os Small round opening at the lower end of the cervix
    9 : LAYERS OF THE UTERUS Perimetrium Is a part of visceral peritonium Composed of simple squamous epithelium and areolar connective tissue. Anteriorly extends over the fundus and the body where it is folded on upper surface of the bladder and vesico uterine pouch. Posteriorly extends over the fundus, body and the cervix then it continues on the rectum to form recto uterine pouch. Laterally Only the fundus is covered because the peritonium forms a double fold with the uterine tubes called broad ligament.
    10 : Myometrium Thickest layer composed of smooth muscle fibres interlaced with areolar tissue , blood vessels and nerves. Endometrium Consist of columnar epithelium containing mucus secreting tubular glands. Functionally divided into two layers - Functional layer and basal layer. Functional layer Is the upper layer and thickens and rich inn blood vessels in first half of the menstrual cycle. If ovum is not fertilized and does not implant this layer is shed during menstruation. Basal layer Lies next to the myometrium and is not last during menstruation. From which the fresh functional layer is regenerated during each cycle.
    11 : BLOOD SUPPLY
    12 : Blood supply Arterial supply Uterine artery: Branch of internal iliac artery Venous drainage: Internal iliac vein Lymph drainage Internal iliac glands
    13 : Nerve supply Sympathetic and parasympathetic via Lee Franken Hauser’s plexus or pelvic plexus
    14 : APPLIED ANATOMY Endometritis (inflammation of the endometrium) Causes: – Infection followed by child birth or miscarriage,especially by the fragments or membranes of the placenta. IUCD
    15 : ENDOMETRIOSIS Growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, most commonly in the ovaries, uterine tubes and other pelvic structures. ADENOMYOSIS; Growth of endometrium within the myometrium. LEIOMYOMA Benign tumor of myometrium ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA HYSTRECTOMY Removal of uterus Uterine prolapse
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    17 : FALLOPIAN TUBES
    18 : Fallopian Tubes Position of the uterine tube: Extends laterally from the cornua of the uterus towards the side walls of the pelvis. They arch over the ovaries, the fringed ends hovering near the ovaries in order to receive the ovum. Relations: Anterior, Posterior & superior Peritoneal cavitry and the intestine. Laterally the side walls of the pelvis, Inferiorly the broad ligament and ovaries, medially uterus. Supports: Held in place by attachment of the uterus. Broad ligaments.
    19 : Structure Each tube is 10cm long The lumen of the tube provides an open path way Has four portion 1. The interstitial portion: is 1.25 cm long & lies within the walls of the uterus. 2. The isthmus: extends for 2.5 cm from the uterus. 3. the ampulla: wider portion, fertilization occur, 5cm long. 4. The infundibulum: the funnel shaped fringed end, composed of many process known as fimbriae
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    21 : LAYERS The lining is a mucous membrane of ciliated cubical epithelium Muscle coat consists of two layers, an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer, both of smooth muscle. The peristaltic movement of the uterine tube is due to the actions of these muscles.
    22 : BLOOD SUPPLY: ARTERIAL SUPPLY: Uterine and ovarian arteries. Venous supply: Uterine and ovarian veins. Lymphatic : Lumbar glands. Nerve supply: Ovarian plexus.
    23 : FUNCTIONS THE UTERINE TUBE PROPELS THE OVUM TOWARDS THE UTERUS. RECEIVES SPERMATOZOA AS THEY TRAVEL UPWARD. PROVIDES A SITE FOR FERTILISATION IT SUPPLIES THE NUTRITION TO THE FERTILISED OVUM.
    24 : APPLIED ANATOMY Acute Salpingitis : inflammation of the uterine tubes Causes: infection spreading from the uterus and peritoneal cavity. Ectopic pregnancy: implantation of a fertilised ovum outside the uterus commonly in a uterine tube.
    25 : OVARIES The female gonads. They are 2.5cm- 3.5cm long, 2cm wide,1cm thick. SUPPORTS: Attached with uterus by ovarian ligament and the broad ligament.
    26 : Relations Relations: Anterior, the broad ligament Posterior, the intestine Superior uterine tubes Laterally infundibulo pelvic ligament and the side walls of the pelvis, medially uterus and ovarian ligament.
    27 : OVARIES The female gonads or sex glands They develop and expel an ovum each month A woman is born with approximately 400,000 immature eggs called follicles During a lifetime a woman release @ 400 to 500 fully matured eggs for fertilization The follicles in the ovaries produce the female sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen These hormones prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg 27
    28 : Thank you

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