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    by: Rogers

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    1 : Architecture Arnon Rotem-Gal-Oz Product Line Architect arnon@rgoarchitects.com http://www.rgoarchitects.com
    2 : Agenda Why Software Architecture? What’s Software Architecture? Architecture types ? Levels ??? Introduction to Architecture Documentation
    3 : Discussion What’s Software Architecture
    4 : Can be built by one person Requires Minimal modeling Simple process Simple tools Architecting a dog house Kruchten
    5 : Architecting a house Built most efficiently and timely by a team Requires Modeling Well-defined process Power tools Kruchten
    6 : Architecting a high rise Kruchten
    7 : Differences Scale Process Cost Schedule Skills and development teams Materials and technologies Stakeholders Risks
    8 : Agenda Why Software Architecture? What’s Software Architecture? Architecture types ? Levels ??? Introduction to Architecture Documentation
    9 : Architecture defined Software architecture is what software architects do Beck
    10 : Architecture definedFormal Definition IEEE 1471-2000 Software architecture is the fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution IEEE 1471-2000
    11 : Software architecture encompasses the set of significant decisions about the organization of a software system Selection of the structural elements and their interfaces by which a system is composed Behavior as specified in collaborations among those elements Composition of these structural and behavioral elements into larger subsystems Architectural style that guides this organization Booch, Kruchten, Reitman, Bittner, and Shaw Architecture definedAnother Go
    12 : Perry and Wolf, 1992 A set of architectural (or design) elements that have a particular form Boehm et al., 1995 A software system architecture comprises A collection of software and system components, connections, and constraints A collection of system stakeholders' need statements A rationale which demonstrates that the components, connections, and constraints define a system that, if implemented, would satisfy the collection of system stakeholders' need statements Clements et al., 1997 The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships among them http://www.sei.edu/architecture/definitions.html Architecture definedFew More
    13 : Common elements 1/2 Architecture defines major components Architecture defines component relationships (structures) and interactions Architecture omits content information about components that does not pertain to their interactions Behavior of components is a part of architecture insofar as it can be discerned from the point of view of another component
    14 : Common elements 2/2 Every system has an architecture (even a system composed of one component) Architecture defines the rationale behind the components and the structure Architecture definitions do not define what a component is Architecture is not a single structure -- no single structure is the architecture
    15 : Architecture is Early Architecture represents the set of earliest design decisions Hardest to change Most critical to get right Architecture is the first design artifact where a system’s quality attributes are addressed
    16 : Architecture Drives Architecture serves as the blueprint for the system but also the project: Team structure Documentation organization Work breakdown structure Scheduling, planning, budgeting Unit testing, integration Architecture establishes the communication and coordination mechanisms among components
    17 : Architecture vs. Design non-functional requirements(“ilities”) functional requirements(domains) Important : this is a general guideline – sometimes the borders are blurred Architecture: where non-functional decisions are cast, and functional requirements are partitioned Design: where functional requirements are accomplished architecture design
    18 : System Quality Attribute Performance Availability Usability Security Maintainability Portability Reusability Testability End User’s view Developer’s view Time To Market Cost and Benefits Projected life time Targeted Market Integration with Legacy System Roll back Schedule Business Community view A list of quality attributes exists in ISO/IEC 9126-2001 Information Technology – Software Product Quality
    19 : Agenda Why Software Architecture? What’s Software Architecture? Software Architecture types ? Levels ??? Introduction to Architecture Documentation
    20 : Business Architecture Concerned with the business model as it relates to an automated solution. E-business is a good candidate Structural part of requirements analysis. Domain Specific
    21 : Technical Architecture Specific to technology and the use of this technology to structure the technical points (Technology Mapping) of an architecture .NET J2EE Hardware architects
    22 : Solutions Architecture Specific to a particular business area (or project) but still reliant on being a technical focal point for communications between the domain architect, business interests and development.
    23 : Enterprise Architecture The organizing logic for a firm’s core business processes and IT capabilities captured in a set of principles, policies and technical choices to achieve the business standardization and integration requirements of the firm’s operating model. Concerned with cross project/solution architecture and communication between different practices in architecture.
    24 : Product Line Architecture Common Architecture for a set of products or systems developed by an organization
    25 : Product Line - Initiation Evolutionary Product line architecture and components evolve with the requirements posed by new product line members. Revolutionary Product line architecture and components developed to match requirements of all expected product-line members
    26 : Agenda Why Software Architecture? What’s Software Architecture? Architecture types ? Levels ??? Introduction to Architecture Documentation
    27 : IEEE 1471 - Recap Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Architectural Description of Software-Intensive Systems Define the Relations between Stakeholders Concerns Views Viewpoint Models Architectural Description
    28 : Documentation Conceptual Model IEEE 1471-2000
    29 : Stakeholders & their concerns Ease of Integration Ease of Use Functionality Price Dev Costs On Time Delivery Performance Stability & Maintainability Ease of Debugging Modifiability Testability & Traceability Structure & dependency between component Ease of Installation End User Sales Dev Manager Developer Sys Admin Maintainer Customer
    30 : Documentation Conceptual Model IEEE 1471-2000
    31 : Discussion What views do you know / use
    32 : Views, Views and more Views RUP – 4 + 1 RM-ODP – 5 DODAF – 3 (top level) Zachman – 36(!) MS – Well…
    33 : RUP – 4+1
    34 : RM-ODP Viewpoints (2001) Enterprise Information Engineering Technology Computational Manager Database Modeler Operating Sys. Engineer Designers Developer Business model Logical, data modeling Logical view of services Servers, Comm, Physical view of data and services (IDL, WSDL)
    35 : DODAF (3 Main Views)
    36 : DoDAF Products 1/2
    37 : DoDAF Products 2/2
    38 : Zachman Framework Scope (Ballpark) view Owners View (Enterprise Model) Designers View (System Model) Builder’s View (Technology Model) Out of Context View (Detailed Model) Operational View (Functioning) Data (What) Function (How) Network (Where) People (Who) Time (When) Motivation (Why)
    39 :
    40 : Old Model MSF 3.0 + Views Aimed at business executives Aimed at business process owners Aimed at architects and designers Aimed at designers and developers
    41 : Business strategies & processes Applications to facilitate business process Information needed to manage business Technology to support business & application needs Old Model MSF 3.0 + Views
    42 : New Modelset of views and artifacts -
    43 : Can be mapped… Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Business Applications Information Technology
    44 : Documentation Conceptual Model IEEE 1471-2000
    45 : Models Non-standard Models ADL UML DSL
    46 : “Non Standard” - Block Diagrams EAI Human Workflow ECM DW OLTP E-Publish DAL Service Agents Business Rules Activity Workflow Authorization Monitoring Service Interface Controls Log & Trace Exception Management Configuration Authentication Signing Rich UI Web UI
    47 : An ADL Example (in ACME) System simple_cs = { Component client = {Port send-request} Component server = {Port receive-request} Connector rpc = {Roles {caller, callee}} Attachments : {client.send-request to rpc.caller; server.receive-request to rpc.callee} }
    48 : ADL - Pros ADLs represent a formal way of representing architecture ADLs are intended to be both human and machine readable ADLs support describing a system at a higher level than previously possible ADLs permit analysis of architectures – completeness, consistency, ambiguity, and performance ADLs can support automatic generation of simulations / software systems
    49 : ADL - Cons There is not universal agreement on what ADLs should represent, particularly as regards the behavior of the architecture Representations currently in use are relatively difficult to parse and are not supported by commercial tools Most ADLs tend to be very vertically optimized toward a particular kind of analysis Most ADL work today has been undertaken with academic rather than commercial goals in mind
    50 : UML 2.0 13 diagram types
    51 : UML
    52 : DSL Services, Messages, Applications, Endpoints XML, Projects, DBs, Classes, Code Logical Data Center Physical servers & segments Deployment Units Abstraction/ Refinement Constraints packaged into deployed on Business Processes and Entities Reconciliation Abstraction/ Refinement
    53 : ADL - revisited ADLs are essentially a DSL for architecture The Architecture DSLs in VSTS – can be considered as an ADL The difference – VSTS has a set of languages instead of one trying to encompass all views
    54 : Discussion What’s the “best” modeling techniques
    55 : Documentation Conceptual Model IEEE 1471-2000
    56 : Discussion How much documentation
    57 : Famous Last Words… “It is a very humbling experience to make a multimillion-dollar mistake, but it is also very memorable….” (Fred Brooks - “Mythical Man-Month” p.47)
    58 : The Need of ArchitectureThe Winchester “Mystery” House 38 years of construction – 147 builders 0 architects 160 rooms – 40 bedrooms, 6 kitchens, 2 basements, 950 doors 65 doors to blank walls, 13 staircases abandoned, 24 skylights in floors No architectural blueprint exists

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