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    1 : Presentation on AUTISM
    2 : Presented by: Group no.7 AYESHA 60034 JAYNISH 60040 MUNMUN 60038 RAVI 60050 REHAB 60032 RESHMA 60035 SAMRIN 60042 SANSKRITI 60044
    3 : Overview What is Autism? Is there more than one type of Autism? How is Autism diagnosed? What are the Characteristics/Symptoms of Autism? Is there a cure? About Autism Awareness Day.
    4 : What exactly is Autism? Autism is a bio-neurological developmental disability that generally appears before the age of 3. First described by Leo Kanner in 1943 as early infantile autism. “Auto” – children are “locked within themselves.” Autism is diagnosed four times more often in boys than girls. Autism impacts the normal development of the brain in the areas of social interaction, communication skills, and cognitive function. Individuals with autism often suffer from numerous physical ailments. Autism does not affect life expectancy.
    5 : What are its Types Autistic Disorder Asperger’s Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) Rett’s Disorder Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
    6 : Autistic Disorder Impairments in social interaction, communication, and imaginative play. Apparent before age 3. Also includes stereotyped behaviors, interests, and activities.
    7 : Asperger’s Disorder Impairments in social interactions, and presence of restricted interests and activities. No clinically significant general delay in language. Average to above average intelligence.
    8 : Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-Nos). Often referred to as atypical autism. Used when a child does not meet the criteria for a specific diagnosis, but there is severe and pervasive impairment in specified behaviors.
    9 : Rett’s Disorder Progressive disorder which, to date, has only occurred in girls. Period of normal development and then the loss of previously acquired skills. Also loss of purposeful use of hands, which is replaced by repetitive hand movements. Beginning at age of 1-4 years.
    10 : Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Normal development for at least the first 2 years. Then significant loss of previously acquired skills.
    11 : How is Autism Diagnosed? No definitive medical test. Team uses interviews, observation, and specific checklists developed for this purpose. Team might include neurologist, psychologist, developmental pediatrician, speech/language therapist, learning consultant, etc. Must rule out MR, hearing impairment, behavior disorders, or eccentric habits.
    12 : Communication/Language Social Interaction Behaviors Sensory and movement disorders Resistance to change (Predictability) CHARACTERISTICS
    13 : Communication/language Broad range of abilities, from no verbal communication to quite complex skills. Two common impairments:- Delayed language B. Echolalia
    14 : 50% of autistic individuals will eventually have useful speech (?) Difficulty in conversing easily with others. Look away; poor eye contact. Facilitated communication?????? Delayed language
    15 : Common in very young children (Age 3). Immediate or delayed (even years). Is there communicative intent with echolalia? Echolalia
    16 : Elements that Facilitated Communication Physical Support Initial training/Introduction Maintaining focus Avoiding competence testing Generalization Fading
    17 : Social Interaction One of the hallmark of autism is lack of social interaction. 1. Impaired use of nonverbal behavior. 2. Lack of peer relationships. 3. Failure to spontaneously share enjoyment, interests, etc. with others. 4. Lack of reciprocity. Theory of mind ?
    18 : Behaviors Repetitive behaviors, including obsessions, tics, and perseveration. Impeding behaviors (impede their learning or the learning of others). Will need positive behavior supports. A. Self-injurious behavior B. Aggression
    19 : Sensory and movement disorders Very common. Abnormal posture and movements of the face, head, etc. Abnormal eye movements. Repeated gestures and mannerisms. Movement disorders can be detected very early – perhaps at birth.
    20 : Predictability Change in routine is very stressful. May insist on particular furniture arrangement, food at meals, TV shows. Symmetry is often important. Interventions need to focus on preparing students for change if possible.
    21 : AWARENESS On December 18, 2007, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 62/139, tabled by the State of Qatar, which declares April 2 as World Autism Awareness Day (WAAD) in perpetuity. Her Highness Sheikh Mozah Bint Nasser Al-Missned, Consort of His Highness Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al-Thani, the Emir of the State of Qatar, supported the campaign for a World Autism Awareness Day through the current 62nd UN General Assembly Session, garnering consensus support from all United Nations Member States.
    22 : THANK YOU

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