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    Add as FriendBasic information on pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems

    by: Rogers

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    1 : Basic information on pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems Martin Sterba, PharmD., PhD. Department of Pharmacology
    2 : Introduction Drug ? Active drug substance (active pharmaceutical ingredient - API) chemical compound with pharmacological (or other direct effect ) intended for used in diagnosis, treatment or prevention of diseases International nonproprietary names (INN, „generic“ names) Why you should be familiar with the basic properties of pharmaceutical dosage forms? Direct clinical use of the active drug substances „as they are“ is rare due to the number of good reasons: API handling can be difficult or impossible (e.g., low mg and ?g doses) Accurate drug dosing can be difficult or impossible API administration can be impractical, unfeasible or not according to the therapeutically aims Some API can benefit from reducing the exposure to the environmental factors (light, moisture…), or they need to be chemically stabilised due to the inherent chemical instability API can be degraded at the site of administration (e.g., low pH in stomach) API may cause local irritations or injury when they are present at high concentrations at the site of administration API can have unpleasant organoleptic qualities (taste, smell – compliance!) Administration of active substance would mean to have no chance for modification (improvement) of its PK profile Besides the choice of the active drug substance, you need to also make a responsible decision regarding the route of administration and the DOSAGE FORM (drug delivery system) – wrong choice can cause failure of therapy You should also be able to handle and administer the drug properly or advise the patient about it – wrong use can cause failure of therapy
    3 : From drug substance to pharmaceutical preparation Active drug substance (active pharmaceutical ingredient - API) Excipients (inactive pharmaceutical ingredients) Technological, biopharmaceutical and/or stability reasons Diluents/fillers, binders, lubricants, desintegrants, coatings, preservants and stabilizers, colorants and flavourings Should always be stated in SPC (important in the case of allergies) Pharmaceutical dosage form determines the physical form of the final pharmaceutical preparation is a drug delivery system which is formed by technological processing (drug formulation) must reflect therapeutic intentions, route of administrations, dosing etc. Pharmaceutical preparation (PP) particular pharmaceutical product containing active and inactive pharmaceutical ingredients formulated into the particular dosage form. Packed and labelled appropriately Two major types of PP according the origin: Manufactured in large scales by pharmaceutical industry (original and generic preparations) Compounded individually in compounding pharmacies
    4 : Pharmaceutical preparations manufactured by pharmaceutical industry Currently certainly the most frequent and favourable approach MUST be approved by national authority (FDA, SUKL…); in the EU - there is an important role of central authority (EMEA) Rigorous quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) during manufacturing - with surveillance of national authorities to ensure the safety and effectiveness Original pharmaceutical preparations undergo full and very extensive pharmacological/toxicological and pharmaceutical pre-clinical and clinical development and evaluation particularly important is the proof of effectiveness and safety Generic pharmaceutical preparations („authorised copies of original preparations“) Can be released after the expiration of the patent protection of the original preparation The approval for clinical use is easier due to the prior experience with the original preparation Must be pharmaceutically equivalent: same API, dose, pharmaceutical dosage form and the same route of administration as in original preparation Must be clinically bioequivalent: i.e. it must be of very close PK profile as original preparation. PK parameters (Cmax, tmax, AUC) are within 80-125 % range as compared with the original preparation. The proof of therapeutic equivalence (comparing directly the clinical effectiveness) is not commonly required (due to the technical, financial and ethical issues). Hence, it can be only assumed from the bioequivalence Decrease the costs of pharmacotherapy and thus make the drugs more available
    5 : Pharmaceutical preparations compounded individually These PP are compounded individually for a particular patient according to the physician's prescription in a pharmacy licensed for compounding In contrast to the past, they are used rather rarely and mostly in specific situations It is highly advisable that whenever the particular suitable PP is approved and commercially available it should be preferred over the compounding The main advantage of compounded PP is the opportunity to individualize the pharmacotherapy Although the choice of commercially available PP manufactured by pharmaceutical industry is quite rich it need not cover all individual demands Hence, the individually compounded PP can be a justified choice when: The drug in a particular dosage form is not commercially available on the market The extraordinary low or high dose is needed (young children, elderly people, special situations – e.g., intoxications). In this case right dosage strength need not be readily commercially available for every patient The patient suffers from the allergy on a specific excipients (e.g., lactose – a filler, some colorizing/flavouring or antimicrobial agents - parabens) or another drug appearing in the PP Patient is unable to use a PP in its commercially available dosage form (e.g., children, elderly) The major disadvantage is the lack of standardization (it is always a „single-patient batch“), unavailability of rigorous QC testing and the appropriate clinical evaluation.
    6 : Classification of pharmaceutical dosage forms according to its physical properties Dosage forms Homogenous systems Dispersion systems – one phase (dispersed phase) is distributed throughout another one (continuous phase, dispersion medium) According to the size of dispersed particles (1 nm- 0,5 mm) a molecular, colloidal and coarse dispersions can be distinguished May require shaking before administration According to the overall physical properties of dosage forms (both homogenous and dispersion systems) one can distinguish Gaseous dosage forms Liquid dosage forms Semisolid dosage forms Solid dosage forms
    7 : Gases Gases – medicinal gases, inhalation/volatile anaesthetics (vaporised before administration by inhalation) Aerodispersions of solid particles (e.g., inhalation antiasthmatics) or liquid particles (inhalation antiasthmatics or sprays) Liquids Solutions – one homogenous phase, prepared by dissolving one or more solutes in a solvent Emulsions a dispersion system consisting of two immiscible liquids o/w or w/o cloudy appearance Suspensions A dispersion system where solid particles are dispersed in liquid phase Not intended for systemic administration of drugs with high potency Classification of pharmaceutical dosage forms according to its physical properties
    8 : Volume/weight for estimation of dose of liquid dosage forms
    9 : Classification of pharmaceutical dosage forms according to its physical properties Semisolid dosage forms Unshaped (without specific physical shape) Gels -A semisolid systems in which a liquid phase is constrained within a 3D cross-linked matrix. Creams – semisolid emulsion systems (o/w, w/o) containing more than 10% of water. o/w creams - more comfortable and cosmetically acceptable as they are less greasy and more easily water washable w/o creams – accommodate and release better lipophilic API, moisturizing, Cold creams Ointments – semisolid dosage forms with the oleaginous (hydrocarbon), water-soluble or emulsifying base Oleaginous (hydrocabon) base: Petrolatum (Vaseline – white, yellow) Water-soluble base: Polyethylenglycol (PEG)- ointment – syn. macrogol ointments Pastes – semisolid dispersion system, where a solid particles (> 25%, e.g. ZnO) are dispersed in ointments – mostly oleaginous (Petrolatum) Shaped Suppositories (for rectal administration) different shapes Melting/dissolving at body temperature Oleaginous (cacao butter, adeps neutralis) or aqueous (PEGs, glycerinated gelatine) Pessaries (vaginal suppositories) Similar as above, PEGs or glycerinated gelatine are often used as base.
    10 : Solid dosage forms Unshaped (without specific shape) - powders for external/internal use Shaped Tablets Capsules Implantates Transdermal patches… Classification of pharmaceutical dosage forms according to its physical properties
    11 : Dosage forms for systemic administration p.o. s.l. and buc. rectal parenteral transdermal inhalation for local administration Topical (on the skin or mucosa) Into/onto - the eye, nose, ear - the oral cavity - the vagina, rectum - the brochi - the skin Local parenteral (viz Parenteral above) Classification of pharmaceutical dosage forms according to the route of administration
    12 : Pharmaceutical dosage forms for systemic administration Generations of dosage forms 1st gen. – conventional (unmodified) release of API 2nd gen. – controlled release of API (CR) 3rd gen. – targeted distribution drug delivery systems
    13 : Conventional vs. controlled release dosage forms I. Gen. – disintegration (? desegregation) of the dosage form and dissolution of API is spontaneous process; drug absorption and distribution is based only on physico-chemical properties of API II. Gen. The release of API is under control of the drug delivery system (temporal control) Advantages: Avoids fluctuations of plasma drug concentration ? better safety and efficacy Decreased frequency of drug administration (often once daily admin) ? better compliance May overcome some problems with BAV Can be much more economical (better cost-effectiveness) Sustained release (SR) – release of the initial API dose & further prolonged release Controlled release (CR) – properly controlled (0. order) release of API Pulsatile release
    14 : Targeted drug delivery The PK of the drug is not primarly determined by the physico-chemical properties of the API Drug delivery system provides altered PK profile - namely the targeted distribution of the drug to the particular organ/tissue (spatial control of the drug delivery) Improved selectivity of action (especially important where pharmacodynamic selectivity is poor) Can overcome unfavourable PK properties (rapid metabolic biotransformation or elimination) Improved efficacy Improved tolerability/decreased toxicity Passive targeting The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) concept Passive accumulation of the drug at the site of pathology due to the leaky vasculature and poor venous/lymphatic drainage – solid tumours (fenestrations as large as 800nm while in most of normal tissues they are ?60 nm) !!! (potentially also tissues suffering from inflammation or ischemia) Drug delivery systems within nanometre range (? 100 nm) A need to prevent opsonization and RES clearence (surface of hydrophilic nature) otherwise once can have monocyte-phagocyte targeted drug delivery How to exploit the concept of passive targeting? Conjugation of the API with a macromolecule (a drug is bound to biomacromolecules or synthetic polymers via biodegradable linker) Liposomal encapsulation – PEGylated (stealth liposomes) Other nanoparticles Active targeting Drug delivery system (liposomes, drug-polymer conjugates) with a specific ligand (Ab, Fab, peptide, protein, hormone) with high affinity to the receptor exposed selectively on the target cells (e.g., cancer cells)
    15 : Dosage forms for systemic administration
    16 : Dosage forms for systemic administration – ORAL (p.o.) solid dosage forms Tablets - Compressed product (API+ excipients – e.g., fillers, desintegrants) Conventional – Desintegration/Desagregation/Dissolution, can be divided (half/quarters) Coated (not to be divided) To mask unpleasant taste or smell of API To avoid of adhesion in oesophagus (to facilitate swallowing and/or avoid release of API and local adverse reactions) To ensure drug stability To provide enterosolvent coating To overcome – possible degradation of API in the stomach and possible local irritation/adverse reactions in the stomach Effervescent tablets – not a final dosage form (drug is administered as the solution), CO2 produced by chemical reaction of acid and NaHCO3. Hygroscopic!!! Rapid absorption ? rapid on-set of action Avoids potential tablet adhesion to mucosa and local irritation !!! Besides tablets for p.o. there are also special tablets for s.l. a bucc.; however, these are different and presents different route of administration!!! Capsules (not to be divided, can also be compounded individually) - API + excipients - enclosed in the hard/soft water soluble container made of gelatin. - Consist of cap and body – filled with powders, pellets, granules (paste, oil) - In the GIT gelatin shell softens, swells and dissolve – particles are dispersed ? disintegration ? API dissolution ? absorption - Hygroscopic - Enteric coating available
    17 : CR (SR) tablets and capsules Reservoir type (not to be divided) Core consisting of API and excipients is encapsulated by wall/membrane determining the rate of release Mechanisms of release Dissolution of the outer/inner layer Diffusion (permeation) throughout membrane pores Osmosis (OROS system) Matrix type (tablets) Drug is dispersed within the polymer Polymer matrix can be biodegradable – drug is released continuously Polymer matrix can form pore – drug can gradually diffuse
    18 : Dosage forms for systemic administration – ORAL (p.o.) liquid dosage forms Solutions (drops) – aqueous, oils Syrups – aqueous sol. with sugar (or sugar substitute) with/without flavouring agents Elixirs – sweetened hydroalcoholic sol., can accomodate less watter sol. API Tinctures – alcoholic or hydroalcoholic sol. – herbal extracts… Emulsions Suspension – should not be used for drugs with high potency (dosing!) Advantages: easier for administration (children, elderly people), good compliance (can be flavoured), rapid absorption, flexible dosing Disadvantages: stability (chemical, microbial… - a need for preservatives), accurate dosing??? A note: Two liquid drug preparations need not be automatically bioequivalent Common API classes: antibiotics, analgesics (spasmoangesics), NSAIDs, antipyretics, antitussive agents, expectorants, vitamins…
    19 : Rectal suppositories Solid dosage form under r.t., which are melted at the body temperature Different size – children and adult supp. !!! Suppository basis (i.e., basic excipients) – oleum cacao, adeps neutralis, glycerogelatine – melting point, non-irritating, chem. stable and inert Different shape – mostly „torpedo“-like, formed by mould casting Both manufactured and compounded Solid suppository is melted within the ampula recti, API is dissolved and is absorbed It can gets into the systemic circulation (Middle & inferior haemorrhoidal veins ? Iliac vein ? inferior vena cava – bypassing liver there is no first pass effect) It can pass through portal circulation: via Superior haemorrhoidal veins ? Inferior mesenteric vein ? Hepatic portal ? Liver (First Pass effect can take place). It becomes to be more important when supp. is position too high in rectum. Advantages: offers an alternative to p.o. – especially useful when patient can not swallow the drug (unconsciousness, vomiting patents, serious GIT disturbances. Children) or when we need to avoid local adverse reactions (e.g., NSAIDs). Disadvantages: poor compliance, some API can cause local irritation of rectal mucosa, stability of the dosage form during high temp., the melted supp. matter may come out Storage: cool place! Other rectal dosage forms for systemic administration: rectal tablets, capsules Common API classes: opioid analgesics, NSAIDS, antipyretics (paracetamol), antiemetics (thiethylperazine) Dosage forms for systemic administrationrectal route dosage forms
    20 : How to use suppositories? 1. Wash your hands. 2. Remove a suppository from the packet (foil or plastic wrapping ). 3. Moisten the suppository with water or water-based lubricating gelly. 4. Lie on your side with one leg bent and the other straight. 5. With your finger, gently insert the suppository into the rectum pointed end first 6. Lower your legs and lie (or sit) still for a few minutes. 7. Wash your hands again. 8. Try not to empty your bowels for at least an hour, unless the suppository is a laxative.
    21 : Dosage forms for systemic administrationParenteral route dosage forms Injectables – dosage forms which are intended to for administration using a hypodermic (hollow pointed) needle (1853 by Dr. A wood). Can be formulated as liquids or powders/lyophilisate for preparation of the solution (stability issues, follow the instructions given by manufacturer!!!) Injections (available as ampoules, vials with rubber head) Solutions, emulsions or suspensions which MUST BE STERILE – free of microorganisms (microbiological tests) PYROGEN-FREE (test for pyrogens) ISOTONIC (NaCl usually as the additive) I.V. injections Must be PARTICLE-FREE (visual inspection prior administration!) Not intended for API inducing clotting or haemolysis Isoacidity is desirable – but different pH often needed to assure solubility of API or chemical stability (may cause local reaction – phlebitis or pain at the site of injection) Moderately irritating compounds can be administered (e.g., anticancer drugs) Vehicle – sterile water for injections, co-solvents may be added (ethanol, PEG 300/400, propylenglycol, Cremophor) to solubilize poorly soluble API Slow administration to avoid problems with „concentration wave“ I.M. and S.C. Isoacidity should be guaranteed (to avoid risk of inflammation/necrosis of the tissues) API and excipients should be non-irritating Suspension/emulsion injectables can be administered (depot forms), oil-based vehicles may be used The volume administered depends on site of administration (e.g., up to 5 ml i.m.)
    22 : Infusions (avialable in plastic bags) I.v. and s.c. route (the demands are as above) Higher volumes over much larger times (from min to days) Infusion pump, tubing and flexible canule is needed! Advantages It can be a approach of choice in the case of Problems with oral absorption (poor/erratic) Problems with stability of API in GIT (pH, enzymes) Uncooperative patients (unconsciousness, vomiting…) Urgent need for rapid onset of action (emergencies) Disadvantages Non-compliance (phobias, children..) Pain/irritation at the site of injection accidental extravasation of some drugs (number of anticancer drugs) may cause serious problems – tissue inflammation, necrosis… Certain degree of heamolysis may occur Need for trained personnel using aseptic procedures (problems with chronic treatment of outpatients – s.c. route may be usable) Higher risk of adverse severe adverse reactions (inc. hypersensitivity on excipients) Parenterals for local use – similar demands as given above) Dosage forms for systemic administrationParenteral route dosage forms
    23 : Implants Controlled drug delivery for over a long time (months/years) Principle Reservoir (Osmotic/diffusion) systems Matrix systems Non-biodegradable Biodegrable polymeric materials with dispersed drug Advantages – largely overcomes problems with individual compliance Disadvantages – mini-surgery is needed, uneasy to simply discontinue the therapy, local reactions Examples: hormones/contraception Dosage forms for systemic administrationParenteral route dosage forms
    24 : Dosage forms for systemic administration Transdermal drug delivery sytems (TDDS) TDDS (transdermal patches) are designed for affixing on healthily and clean skin in order to assure controlled drug delivery into the systemic circulation Barrier function of the skin (particularly stratum corneum)!!! TDDS Reservoir/membrane systems Matrix systems New „micro-invasive“ systems – microneedle arrays
    25 : Dosage forms for systemic administration Transdermal drug delivery sytems (TDDS) Advantages Elegant alternative to injectables Pain and stress-free No need for trained specialist Long-term drug delivery with minimal fluctuations of drug concentrations Good compliance Unlike other controlled drug delivery systems, the delivery of the API can be immediately discontinued (e.g., upon occurrence of adverse reactions…) Disadvantages Not feasible for all API ! Mr < 500 Well balanced lipohilicity High potency (high doses can not be accommodated and delivered) ? Penetration enhancers can help! Local relations (irritation, disruption of barrier skin function) Need not be practical/comfortable Need not be cost-effective Examples of clinical use: hormones (HRT, contraceptives), opioid analgesics (e.g., fentanyl), nitroglycerine, nicotine (RT), clonidine or scopolamine
    26 : Dosage forms for local drug administration Into/onto the eye, nose, ear the oral cavity the vagina, rectum the brochi the skin/hairs
    27 : Dosage forms for local drug administrationinto the eye Eye liquid dosage forms Drops (smaller volumes, 10-20 ml) and Lotions (up to 100 ml) Can be both manufactured and compounded (however, higher tech. demands!) Must be Sterile (sterile ingredients/preparation) – proper handling, storage and administration to avoid contamination Often deserves to employ antimicrobial agent (may be a source of allergy) Isotonic with tears (to avoid eye irritation due to the hypotonic preparations) Vehicle – sterile water (oil) Advantages: high local concentration, lower systemic adverse reactions, minor effects on vision Disadvantages: local hypersensitivity, rapid tear eash-out! Eye semisolid drug formulation Gels, creams and ointments MUST also be sterile and clear (partuculate free) Direct application into the conjuctiva to avoid contamination (do not use fingers) Advantages: API exposure is longer! Disadvantages: can hinder vision (useful for overnight treatment), dosage accuracy Eye solid drug formulations Eye inserts (soluble, insoluble, biodegradable) – slow release of API Examples: antiglaucoma drugs (pilocarpin, timolol), antimicrobial agents, vasoconstriction agents and antihistamines, mydriatics/myotics
    28 : Nasal/ear drops and prays Usually isotonic Vehicles and API must be non-irritating Vehicle – isotonic aqueous solutions/oils Technique of (self)-administration May require special dropping device When kept under lower temp. It should be warmed in hands (ear) Nasal/ear semisolid dosage forms - gels, creams and ointments More complicated administration into the ear Example Nose – decongestants, antihistamines, antiinflamatory, antiseptic agents and ATB Ear: atb Dosage forms for local drug administrationinto the nose/ear
    29 : Dosage forms for local drug administrationinto the vagina/rectum Vaginal dosage forms Tablets Compressed products disintegrating in vagina (may also form foam) Markedly different appearance to oral ones Application devices Capsules Pessars (vaginal suppositories) – hydrophilic bases are more frequent (more comfortable) Both manufactured and compounded Vaginal foams Examples: namely antimicrobial agents (antibacterial, antimycotic, antiprotozoal) Rectal dosage forms Suppositories (as given previously for systemic administration) Gels and creams Enemas Examples: antihemeroidal drugs (also inc. local anaesthetics), antiseptics and laxatives
    30 : Dosage forms for local drug administrationonto the skin/hairs Aerodispersion (macro) - sprays Aquous dosage forms – lotions, medicated shampoo, foam Semisolid dosage forms Gels Creams Ointments Used as: emollients for skin hydration to form a protective barrier as a vehicle for incorporation of API Solid dosage forms Dusting powder (starch and talc as a vehicle) Example: atb (e.g., neomycine + bacitracine)

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