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    Add as FriendBone union and recent advances

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    1 : FRACTURE UNION AND RECENT ADVANCES Prepared by: Dr First year resident
    2 : Fracture is defined as a break in the continuity of bone results in loss of its mechanical stability partial destruction of blood supply. But following fracture a scar is not formed, instead a bone has formed bone healing the appropriate nomenclature would be BONE REGENERATION 2 What is Fracture?
    3 : What is a Fracture Healing? A complex process that requires the recruitment of appropriate cells the subsequent expression of the appropriate genes at the right time and in the right anatomical location. A fracture initiates a sequence of inflammation, repair, and remodeling that can restore the injured bone to its original state or near original state.
    4 : There are 3 major phases with sub divisions: Reactive Phase Fracture and inflammatory phase Stage of hematoma formation Granulation tissue formation. Reparative Phase: Cartilage Callus formation. Lamellar bone deposition. Remodeling Phase: Remodeling to original bone contour. 4 STAGES OF FRACTURE HEALING
    5 :
    6 : FACTURE UNION Union is incomplete repair and the ensheathing callus is calcified. Clinically the fracture site is still a little tender, the bone moves in one piece, attempted angulation is painful. X-Rays show the fracture line still clearly visible, with fluffy callus around it. Repair is incomplete and it is not safe to subject the unprotected bone to stress.
    7 : Clinical union occurs when progressively increasing stiffness and strength provided by the mineralization process makes the fracture site stable and pain free. Radiographic union present when plain radiographs show bone trabeculae or cortical bone crossing the fracture site. Radioisotope studies have shown increased activity in fracture sites long after painless function has been restored and radiographic union is present, indicating that the remodeling process continues for years.
    8 : Local factors Chemical factors Vascular factors Systemic factors Electromagnetic factors Treatment factors 8 INFLUENCING FACTORS
    9 : A.Type of bone B. Degree of Trauma C.Vascular Injury D. Degree of Immobilization E. Type of Fractures F. others: Bone death caused by radiation thermal chemical burns infection. 9 LOCAL FACTORS
    10 : 1.MESSENGER 2.GROWTH 3.PERMEABILITY SUBSTANCES FACTORS FACTORS -Serotonin -Transforming GF -Proteases -Prostaglandins -Fibroblast GF -Polypeptides -Histamines -Platelet derived GF -Amines -Thromboxane -Insulin like GF -Bone morphogenic proteins(BMP) 10 2.CHEMICAL FACTORS
    11 : MESSENGER SUBSTANCE: CYTOKINES- IL-1,4,6,11, macrophage and granulocyte/macrophage stimulate bone resorption. IL-1 ,6 synthesis is decreased by estrogen PROSTAGLANDINS- Stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and inhibit activity of isolated osteoclasts. LEUKOTRINES- Stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and enhance the capacity of isolated osteoclasts to form resorption pits. 11
    12 : GROWTH FACTORS A.Transforming growth factor(TGF): -Act on serine/threonine kinase cell wall receptors - Promotes proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes - Stimulates both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation and collagen type 2 synthesis. B.Fibroblast growth factors(FGF): -Increase proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts -Enhance callus formation & stimulates angiogenesis. 12
    13 : C.Platelet derived growth factor(PDGF): Stimulates bone cell growth Increases type I collagen synthesis by increasing the number of osteoblasts. PDGF-B stimulates bone resorption. D.Insulin like growth factor(ILGF): Stimulates bone collagen & matrix synthesis and replicates osteoblasts . It also inhibits collagen degradation. 13
    14 : E.Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMP): BMP are Osteoinductive proteins initially isolated from demineralized bone matrix. FUNCTIONS: Induce cell differentiation : BMP 3(osteogenin). Promote endochondral ossification: BMP 2 & 7. Regulate extracellular matrix production :BMP1. Increase fusion rates in Spinal fusions (anterior lumbar interbody fusion): BMP 2 Non unions: BMP 7 as good as bone grafting . 14
    15 : 3.PERMEABILITY FACTORS: -Protease – Plasmin , Kalikrein, Globulin permeability factor. -Polypeptides –leucotaxime, Bradykinin, Kallidin -Amines – Adrenalin, nor-adrenalin, Histamine. These factors work in ways that : Increase capillary permeability Alteration in diffusion mechanism in intracellular matrix Cellular migration Proliferation & differentiation New blood vessel formation Matrix synthesis Growth & development. 15
    16 : 16 3.VASCULAR FACTORS A. Metalloproteinases: Degrade cartilage and bones to allow invasion of vessels B Angiogenic factors: -Vascular-endothelial growth factors mediate neo-angiogenesis & endothelial-cell specific mitogens. C. Angiopoietin (? & ??) Regulate formation of larger vessels and branches.
    17 : A.Age:  Young patients heal rapidly and have a remarkable ability to remodel V/S old . B.Nutrition: An adequate metabolic stage with sufficient carbohydrates and protein is necessary. C.Systemic Diseases:  an immunocompromised state will likely delay healing. Illnesses like Marfan’s syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome cause abnormal musculoskeletal healing. 17 4.SYSTEMIC FACTORS
    18 : D.HORMONES: Estrogen Stimulates fracture healing through receptor mediated mechanism. Thyroid hormones stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption. Glucocorticoids increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Parathyroid Hormone Accelerates callus formation (+osteoprogenitor cells) with enhanced remodeling & biomechanical properties of healing # Growth Hormone Increases callus formation and fracture strength 18
    19 : In vitro bone deformation produces piezoelectric currents and streaming potentials. Electromagnetic (EM) devices are based on Wolff’s Law that bone responds to mechanical stress: Exogenous EM fields may simulate mechanical loading and stimulate bone growth and repair TYPES ARE : Ultrasound. Direct electrical current. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). 5.ELECTROMAGNETIC FACTORS
    20 : A.Ultrasound therapy: Modulates signal transduction, increases gene expression (aggrecan ), increases blood flow, enhances bone remodeling and increases callus torsional strength in animal models. Low-intensity ultrasound is approved by the FDA for stimulating healing of fresh fractures.
    21 : Direct Electrical current: Electric stimulation of bone has been taught to be an effective and non invasive method for fracture healing and treating fracture non union. Studies shows that electric field generated helps in proliferation of bone cells.
    22 : 22 C. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Approved for the treatment of non-unions Efficacy of bone stimulation appears to be frequency dependant are most effective (15 to 30 Hz range)
    23 : 23 RECENT ADVANCES Bone graft Autogenous (iliac crest, prox. tibia, distal femur) Scaffold for osteoconduction Has bone matrix proteins ? osteoinduction Has progenitor stem cells ? osteogenesis (free vascular fibular graft for absent radius/ long bone) Allogenic (from cadaver) Synthetic (demineralized bone matrix, collagen, ceramics, cements, polymers- Si, PMMA) 2 emerging products Tricalcium PO4 composite (VITROSS, CORTOSS) Hydroxyapatite compound (pro osteon) – marine coral
    24 : Bone Marrow Aspirate bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells and circulating progenitors Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and other connective tissue cells in vitro under appropriate conditions. circulating endothelial progenitors that can contribute to adult vasculogenesis. some of the effects of bone marrow aspirate on fracture healing could be due to the local application of osteochondrogenic cells and/or endothelial progenitor cells during bone healing.
    25 : Use of Serological Bone Formation Markers Current serum markers of bone formation activity include bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) procollagen type-I C-terminal propeptide (PICP) osteocalcin (OC) to Monitor Callus Development and Fracture Healing PINP is superior in reflecting bone formation processes when compared with ALP, PICP, and OC. PINP can also be characterized as an index of collagen synthesis, a marker of the early stages of bone formation, and a marker of callus formation.
    26 : Laser Photobiomodulation on Bone Laser Phototherapy (LPT) is an effective tool to stimulate bone. results show that the use of IR laser results on increased bone neo-formation. LPT effect depends not only on the total dose, but also on both irradiation time and mode. Energy density and intensity are biologically independent and accounts for the success and the failure of the treatment.
    27 : Percutaneous vertebroplasty: Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive, image-guided therapy used to relieve pain from a vertebral body fracture. It has been used for osteoporotic or malignant fractures. Vertebroplasty can increase patient mobility, decrease narcotic needs, and prevent further vertebral collapse. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) usually involves percutaneous injection of a cement, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), into the vertebral bodies. Occasionally, PMMA has been placed manually into vertebral lesions during open surgical operations. Percut. Inj. (Fibroblast GF-2 + hyaluronon) ? ? callus formation & mechanical strength
    28 : 28 OTHER RECENT ADVANCES: GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY Due to their ability to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and osteoprogenitor cells they have shown great promise for their ability to promote fracture repair . APPLICATION OF PLATELET RICH PLASMA PRP improves cellular proliferation and chondrogenesis during early fracture healing and increases the mechanical strength of callus during late fracture healing Injecting platelet rich plasma at fracture site helps in fracture healing . TISSUE ENGINEERING, STEM CELLS AND GENE THERAPIES In past decade tissue culture and stem cells have been implicated in enhancing fracture healing and articular cartilage regeneration.
    29 : Fracture healing is influenced by many variables including mechanical stability, electrical environment, biochemical factors and blood flow etc… Our ability to enhance fracture healing will increase as we better understand the interaction between these variables. 29 SUMMARY
    30 : 30 Thank You
    31 : CAMPBELL TEXTBOOK OF ORTHOPAEDICS 11TH EDITION.. APLEYS PRINCIPLE OF ORTHOPAEDICS REVIEW OF ORTHOPAEDICS BY MILLER Orthopaedic Knowledge Update 10 Recent Developments in the Biology of Fracture Repair Recent Advances in the Use of Serological Bone Formation Markers to Monitor Callus Development and Fracture Healing Marlon O. Coulibaly1, Debra L. Recent Advances on the Use of Laser Photobiomodulation on Bone. A. Pinheiro Gene therapy for in vivo bone formation: recent advances W. LATTANZI1*, E. POLA2* The evidence of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for in vitro, animal and human fracture healingPilar Martinez de Albornoz†, Anil Khanna‡, 31 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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