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    Add as FriendCARDIAC CYCLE

    by: venki

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    1 : THE CARDIAC CYCLE
    2 : ATRIAL SYSTOLE The end of diastole
    3 : ATRIAL SYSTOLE - Heart Prior to atrial systole, blood has been flowing passively from the atrium into the ventricle through the open AV valve. During atrial systole the atrium contracts and tops off the volume in the ventricle with only a small amount of blood. Atrial contraction is complete before the ventricle begins to contract.
    4 : ATRIAL SYSTOLE Pressures & Volumes The "a" wave occurs when the atrium contracts, increasing atrial pressure (yellow). Blood arriving at the heart cannot enter the atrium so it flows back up the jugular vein, causing the first discernible wave in the jugular venous pulse. Atrial pressure drops when the atria stop contracting. During atrial systole the atrium contracts and tops off the volume in the ventricle with only a small amount of blood. Atrial contraction is complete before the ventricle begins to contract.
    5 : ATRIAL SYSTOLE ECG An impulse arising from the SA node results in depolarization and contraction of the atria (the right atrium contracts slightly before the left atrium). The P wave is due to this atrial depolarization. The PR segment is electrically quiet as the depolarization proceeds to the AV node. This brief pause before contraction allows the ventricles to fill completely with blood.
    6 : ATRIAL SYSTOLE Heart Sounds A fourth heart sound (S4) is abnormal and is associated with the end of atrial emptying after atrial contraction. It occurs with hypertrophic congestive heart failure, massive pulmonary embolism, tricuspid incompetence, or cor pulmonale.
    7 : ISOVOLUMETRIC CONTRACTION The Beginning of systole
    8 : ISOVOLUMETRIC CONTRACTION Heart The atrioventricular (AV) valves close at the beginning of this phase. Electrically, ventricular systole is defined as the interval between the QRS complex and the end of the T wave (the Q-T interval). Mechanically, ventricular systole is defined as the interval between the closing of the AV valves and the opening of the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary valves).
    9 : ISOVOLUMETRIC CONTRACTION Pressures & Volumes The AV valves close when the pressure in the ventricles (red) exceeds the pressure in the atria (yellow). As the ventricles contract isovolumetrically -- their volume does not change (white) -- the pressure inside increases, approaching the pressure in the aorta and pulmonary arteries (green).
    10 : ISOVOLUMETRIC CONTRACTION ECG The electrical impulse propagates from the AV node through the His bundle and Purkinje system to allow the ventricles to contract from the apex of the heart towards the base. The QRS complex is due to ventricular depolarization, and it marks the beginning of ventricular systole. It is so large that it masks the underlying atrial repolarization signal. the ventricles to fill completely with blood.
    11 : ISOVOLUMETRIC CONTRACTION Heart Sounds The first heart sound (S1, "lub") is due to the closing AV valves and associated blood turbulence.
    12 : RAPID EJECTION
    13 : RAPID EJECTION Heart The semilunar (aortic and pulmonary) valves open at the beginning of this phase.
    14 : RAPID EJECTION Pressures & Volumes While the ventricles continue contracting, the pressure in the ventricles (red) exceeds the pressure in the aorta and pulmonary arteries (green); the semilunar valves open, blood exits the ventricles, and the volume in the ventricles decreases rapidly (white). As more blood enters the arteries, pressure there builds until the flow of blood reaches a peak. The "c" wave of atrial pressure is not normally discernible in the jugular venous pulse. Right ventricular contraction pushes the tricuspid valve into the atrium and increases atrial pressure, creating a small wave into the jugular vein. It is normally simultaneous with the carotid pulse.
    15 : RAPID EJECTION ECG No Deflections
    16 : RAPID EJECTION Heart Sounds None
    17 : REDUCED EJECTION The end of systole
    18 : REDUCED EJECTION Heart At the end of this phase the semilunar (aortic and pulmonary) valves close.
    19 : REDUCED EJECTION Pressures & Volumes After the peak in ventricular and arterial pressures (red and green), blood flow out of the ventricles decreases and ventricular volume decreases more slowly (white). When the pressure in the ventricles falls below the pressure in the arteries, blood in the arteries begins to flow back toward the ventricles and causes the semilunar valves to close. This marks the end of ventricular systole mechanically.
    20 : REDUCED EJECTION ECG The T wave is due to ventricular repolarization. The end of the T wave marks the end of ventricular systole electrically.
    21 : REDUCED EJECTION Heart Sounds None
    22 : ISOVOLUMETRIC RELAXATION The beginning of Diastole
    23 : ISOVOLUMETRIC RELAXATION Heart At the beginning of this phase the AV valves are closed.
    24 : ISOVOLUMETRIC RELAXATION Pressures & Volumes Throughout this and the previous two phases, the atrium in diastole has been filling with blood on top of the closed AV valve, causing atrial pressure to rise gradually (yellow). The "v" wave is due to the back flow of blood after it hits the closed AV valve. It is the second discernible wave of the jugular venous pulse. The pressure in the ventricles (red) continues to drop. Ventricular volume (white) is at a minimum and is ready to be filled again with blood.
    25 : ISOVOLUMETRIC RELAXATION ECG No Deflections
    26 : ISOVOLUMETRIC RELAXATION Heart Sounds The second heart sound (S2, "dup") occurs when the semilunar (aortic and pulmonary) valves close. S2 is normally split because the aortic valve closes slightly earlier than the pulmonary valve.
    27 : RAPID VENTRICULAR FILLING
    28 : RAPID VENTRICULAR FILLING Heart Once the AV valves open, blood that has accumulated in the atria flows rapidly into the ventricles.
    29 : RAPID VENTRICULAR FILLING Pressures & Volumes Ventricular volume (white) increases rapidly as blood flows from the atria into the ventricles.
    30 : RAPID VENTRICULAR FILLING ECG No Deflections
    31 : RAPID VENTRICULAR FILLING Heart Sounds A third heart sound (S3) is usually abnormal and is due to rapid passive ventricular filling. It occurs in dilated congestive heart failure, severe hypertension, myocardial infarction, or mitral incompetence.
    32 : REDUCED VENTRICULAR FILLING (Diastasis)
    33 : REDUCED VENTRICULAR FILLING Heart Rest of blood that has accumulated in the atria flows slowly into the ventricles.
    34 : REDUCED VENTRICULAR FILLING Pressures & Volumes Ventricular volume (white) increases more slowly now. The ventricles continue to fill with blood until they are nearly full.
    35 : REDUCED VENTRICULAR FILLING ECG No Deflections
    36 : REDUCED VENTRICULAR FILLING Heart Sounds None
    37 : THANK YOU

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