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    Add as FriendCapital Market

    by: venkatragavan

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    1 : Capital Marketing By VENKATRAGAVAN.G MBA(BT)
    2 : Introduction For starting any Business, an entrepreneur needs investments in the form of capital. Depending on the size of the project, the amount of capital varies. Entrepreneur cannot go for investing his own money in the business, so he has to go for borrowing. borrowing has many problem such as paying interest monthly, that too if it is a long term project, he won’t be able to give interest regularly. Paying Interest has some advantage over taxation. Banks/Financial Institution may demand a security for their loans in the form of collaterals, the promoter may choose to raise the capital by issuing shares to public making them a offering on future.
    3 : Definition Capital Marketing is defined as “the process of increasing the major part of financial capital required for starting a business through issue of shares to public”. The issue may be Shares, Debentures , Bonds, etc. Capital market is a market for long term debts and equity shares.
    4 : Importance of Capital Marketing Pooling the capital resources and Developing enterprises investors Solve the problem of paucity of funds Mobilize the small and scattered savings Augment the availability of investible funds Growth of joint stock business Provide a number of profitable investment opportunities for a small savers.
    5 : Depository A depository is like a bank wherein the deposits are securities (viz. shares, debentures, bonds, government securities, units etc.) in electronic form. There are two types of Depository in our country NSDL CDSL
    6 : NSDL(National Securities depository Limited) NSDL aims at ensuring the safety and soundness of Indian marketplaces by developing settlement solutions that increase efficiency, minimise risk and reduce costs. In the depository system, securities are held in depository accounts, which is more or less similar to holding funds in bank accounts. Transfer of ownership of securities is done through simple account transfers. This method does away with all the risks and hassles normally associated with paperwork. Consequently, the cost of transacting in a depository environment is considerably lower as compared to transacting in certificates Promoters / Shareholders
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    8 : NSDL is promoted by Industrial Development Bank of India Limited (IDBI) - the largest development bank of India, Unit Trust of India (UTI) - the largest mutual fund in India and National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) - the largest stock exchange in India NDSL FIGURES: Number of certificates eliminated (Approx.) : 619 Crore. NSDL has crossed more than one Crore demat account. Number of companies in which more than 75% shares are dematted : 2500 Average number of accounts opened per day since November 1996 : 3633 Presence of demat account holders in the country : 79% of all pin codes in the country
    9 : CSDL CDSL was set up with the objective of providing convenient, dependable and secure depository services at affordable cost to all market participants. Some of the important milestones of CDSL system are: CDSL received the certificate of commencement of business from SEBI in February, 1999. Honorable Former Union Finance Minister, Shri Yashwant Sinha flagged off the operations of CDSL on July 15, 1999. All leading stock exchanges like the National Stock Exchange, Calcutta Stock Exchange, Delhi Stock Exchange, The Stock Exchange, Ahmadabad, etc have established connectivity with CDSL. As at the end of Dec 2007, over 5000 issuers have admitted their securities (equities, bonds, debentures, commercial papers), units of mutual funds, certificate of deposits etc. into the CDSL system. CDSL was promoted by Bombay Stock Exchange Limited (BSE) jointly with leading banks such as State Bank of India, Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, HDFC Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, Union Bank of India and Centurion Bank.
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    14 : Primary Market In Primary Market, Securities are offered to the public for subscription, for the purpose of raising the capital or funds. The issue of securities in the primary market is subjected to fulfillment of a number of pre-issue guidelines by SEBI and compliance to various provision of the Company Act. An unlisted issuer making a public issue i.e. (making an IPO) is required to satisfy the following provisions: The Issuer Company shall meet the following requirements: (a) Net Tangible Assets of at least Rs. 3 crores in each of the preceding three full years. (b) Distributable profits in at least three of the immediately preceding five years. (c) Net worth of at least Rs. 1 Crore in each of the preceding three full years. (d) If the company has changed its name within the last one year, atleast 50% revenue for the preceding 1 year should be from the activity suggested by the new name. (e) The issue size does not exceed 5 times the pre- issue net worth as per the audited balance sheet of the last financial year
    15 : A listed issuer making a public issue (FPO) is required to satisfy the following requirements : (a) If the company has changed its name within the last one year, atleast 50% revenue for the preceding 1 year should be from the activity suggested by the new name. (b) The issue size does not exceed 5 times the pre- issue net worth as per the audited balance sheet of the last financial year
    17 : PUBLIC ISSUE :- It involves raising of funds directly from the public and get themselves listed on the stock exchange in case of new companies ,the face value of the securities is issue at par, and in the case of existing companies, the face value of securities are issued at premium Initial public offer (IPO): When an unlisted company makes either a fresh issue of securities or offers its existing securities for sale or both for the first time to the public, it is called an IPO. This paves way for listing and trading of the issuer’s securities in the Stock Exchanges. Further public offer (FPO): When an already listed company makes either a fresh issue of securities to the public or an offer for sale to the public, it is called a FPO. RIGHT ISSUE:- Right issue is the method of raising additional finance from existing members by offering securities to them on pro rata bases. The rights offer should be kept open for a period of 60 days and should be announced within one month of the closure of books.
    18 : BONUS ISSUE:- Companies distribute profits to existing shareholders by way of fully paid bonus share in lieu of dividend. These are issued in the ratio of existing shares held. The shareholders do not have to make any additional payment for these shares PRIVATE PLACEMENT: Private Placement is an issue of shares by a company to a select group of persons under the Section 81 of the companies act 1956. It is a faster way for a company to raise equity capital.
    19 : Intermediates in issue in the Primary Market Book Running Lead Managers(BRLM): A Merchant banker possessing a valid SEBI registration in accordance with the SEBI Regulations,1992 is eligible to act as a BRLM to an issue. Cut Off Price: In the book-building issue, the issuer is required to indicate either the price band or a floor price in the RHP. The actual discovered issue price can be any price in the price band or any price above the floor price. This issue price is called as the Cut Off Price. And the other intermediates are Merchant Banker Registrars to the Issue Bankers to the Issue Underwriters
    20 : Secondary Market Secondary Market refers to a market where securities are traded after being initially offered to the public in the primary market and/or listed on the stock exchange. Secondary market comprises of Equity market and Debt market. It is the trading avenue in which the already existing securities are traded amongst investors. Banks facilitate secondary market transactions by opening direct trading and demat accounts to individuals and companies.
    21 : Financial instruments dealt in Secondary market Equity Shares: An equity share is commonly referred to as an ordinary share. It is an form of fractional ownership in which a shareholder, as a fractional owner, undertakes the entrepreneurial risk associated with the business venture. Holders of the equity shares are members of the company and have voting rights. Right shares: This refers to the issue of new securities to the existing shareholders, at a ratio to those shares already held. Bonus Shares: These shares are issued by the companies to their shareholders free of cost by capitalization of accumulated reserves from the profit earned in the earlier years.
    22 : Preference shares: These shareholder do not have voting rights. Owners of these shares are entitled to a fixed dividend or a dividend calculated at a fixed rate to be paid regularly before any dividend can be paid in respect of equity shares. These shareholders also enjoy priority over the equity shareholders in the payment of surplus. Cumulative Preference Shares: This is a type of preference shares on which dividend accumulates if it remains unpaid. Cumulative Convertible Preference Shares: This is a type of preference shares on where the dividend payable on the same accumulates, if not paid. After a specified date, these shares will be converted into equity capital of the company.
    23 : Participating Preference Shares: This refers to the right of certain preference shareholders to participate in profits, after a specified fixed dividend contracted for is paid. Debentures: Debentures are bonds issued by a company bearing a fixed rate of interest usually payable half-yearly, on specific dates and the principal amount repayable on a particular date on redemption of the debentures. Debentures are normally secured against the asset of the company in favour of the debenture holder. Bonds: A bond is a negotiable certificate evidencing indebtedness. It is normally unsecured.
    24 : The various type of bonds are as follows: Coupon Bonds: These are normal bonds on which the issuer pays the investor interest at the predetermined rate at agreed intervals, normally twice a year. Zero Coupon Bonds: A bond issued at a discount and repaid at a face value is called as Zero coupon bonds. No periodic interest is paid in this case. Convertible Bond: A bond giving the investor the option to convert the bond into equity at a fixed conversion price is referred to as a Convertible Bond. Treasury Bills: These are short term bearer discount security, issued by the Government as a means of meeting its cash requirements.
    25 : Commonly Used Terms in Capital Market Securities Transaction Tax(STT): Securities Transaction Tax is a tax being levied on all transaction done on the stock exchanges at rates prescribed by the central government from time to time. Rolling Settlement: In Rolling Settlement, trades executed during the day are settled, based on the Nett obligations for the day. Presently the trade pertaining to the rolling settlement are settled on a T+2 day basis , where T stands for the trade day. Pay- in Day and Pay-out Day: Pay-in day is the day when the brokers make payments or delivery of securities to the exchange. Pay-out day is the day when the exchange makes payment or delivery of securities to the broker. Settlement cycle is on a T+2 rolling settlement basis.
    26 : Settlement Cycle of Normal Settlement
    27 : Thank You

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