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    Add as FriendChapter 10 Abstract Classes andInterfaces

    by: Rogers

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    1 : 1 Chapter 10 Abstract Classes and Interfaces
    2 : 2 Objectives To design and use abstract classes (§10.2). To process a calendar using the Calendar and GregorianCalendar classes (§10.3). To declare interfaces to model weak inheritance relationships (§10.4). To define a natural order using the Comparable interface (§10.4.1). To know the similarities and differences between an abstract class and an interface (§10.4.2). To declare custom interfaces (§10.4.3). (Optional) To enable objects cloneable using the Cloneable interface (§10.4.4). To use wrapper classes (Byte, Short, Integer, Long, Float, Double, Character, and Boolean) to wrap primitive data values into objects (§10.5). (Optional) To use the BigInteger and BigDecimal classes for computing very large numbers with arbitrary precisions (§10.5.6). To create a generic sort method (§10.5). To simplify programming using JDK 1.5 automatic conversion between primitive types and wrapper class types (§10.6). (Optional GUI) To handle GUI events (§10.7).
    3 : 3 The abstract Modifier The abstract class Cannot be instantiated Should be extended and implemented in subclasses The abstract method Method signature without implementation
    4 : 4 From Chapter 9
    5 : 5 Abstract Classes GeometricObject Circle Rectangle
    6 : 6 NOTE An abstract method cannot be contained in a nonabstract class. If a subclass of an abstract superclass does not implement all the abstract methods, the subclass must be declared abstract. In other words, in a nonabstract subclass extended from an abstract class, all the abstract methods must be implemented, even if they are not used in the subclass.
    7 : 7 NOTE An abstract class cannot be instantiated using the new operator, but you can still define its constructors, which are invoked in the constructors of its subclasses. For instance, the constructors of GeometricObject are invoked in the Circle class and the Rectangle class.
    8 : 8 NOTE A class that contains abstract methods must be abstract. However, it is possible to declare an abstract class that contains no abstract methods. In this case, you cannot create instances of the class using the new operator. This class is used as a base class for defining a new subclass.
    9 : 9 NOTE A subclass can be abstract even if its superclass is concrete. For example, the Object class is concrete, but its subclasses, such as GeometricObject, may be abstract.
    10 : 10 NOTE A subclass can override a method from its superclass to declare it abstract. This is rare, but useful when the implementation of the method in the superclass becomes invalid in the subclass. In this case, the subclass must be declared abstract.
    11 : 11 NOTE You cannot create an instance from an abstract class using the new operator, but an abstract class can be used as a data type. Therefore, the following statement, which creates an array whose elements are of GeometricObject type, is correct. GeometricObject[] geo = new GeometricObject[10];
    12 : 12 Example: Using the GeometricObject Class Objective: This example creates two geometric objects: a circle, and a rectangle, invokes the equalArea method to check if the two objects have equal area, and invokes the displayGeometricObject method to display the objects. TestGeometricObject Run
    13 : 13 The Abstract Calendar Class and Its GregorianCalendar subclass
    14 : 14 The Abstract Calendar Class and Its GregorianCalendar subclass An instance of java.util.Date represents a specific instant in time with millisecond precision. java.util.Calendar is an abstract base class for extracting detailed information such as year, month, date, hour, minute and second from a Date object. Subclasses of Calendar can implement specific calendar systems such as Gregorian calendar, Lunar Calendar and Jewish calendar. Currently, java.util.GregorianCalendar for the Gregorian calendar is supported in the Java API.
    15 : 15 The GregorianCalendar Class You can use new GregorianCalendar() to construct a default GregorianCalendar with the current time and use new GregorianCalendar(year, month, date) to construct a GregorianCalendar with the specified year, month, and date. The month parameter is 0-based, i.e., 0 is for January.
    16 : 16 The get Method in Calendar Class The get(int field) method defined in the Calendar class is useful to extract the value for a given time field. The time fields are defined as constants such as YEAR, MONTH, DATE, HOUR (for the 12-hour clock), HOUR_OF_DAY (for the 24-hour clock), MINUTE, SECOND, DAY_OF_WEEK (the day number within the current week with 1 for Sunday), DAY_OF_MONTH (same as the DATE value), DAY_OF_YEAR (the day number within the current year with 1 for the first day of the year), WEEK_OF_MONTH (the week number within the current month), and WEEK_OF_YEAR (the week number within the current year). For example, the following code
    17 : 17 Optional Path You may cover Chapter 12, “GUI Basics”, and Chapter 13, “Graphics,” now. See the Chapter Dependency Chart.
    18 : 18 Interfaces An interface is a classlike construct that contains only constants and abstract methods. In many ways, an interface is similar to an abstract class, but an abstract class can contain variables and concrete methods as well as constants and abstract methods. To distinguish an interface from a class, Java uses the following syntax to declare an interface: public interface InterfaceName { constant declarations; method signatures; }
    19 : 19 Interface is a Special Class An interface is treated like a special class in Java. Each interface is compiled into a separate bytecode file, just like a regular class. Like an abstract class, you cannot create an instance from an interface using the new operator, but in most cases you can use an interface more or less the same way you use an abstract class. For example, you can use an interface as a data type for a variable, as the result of casting, and so on.
    20 : 20 Define Interfaces Suppose you want to design a generic method to find the larger of two objects. The objects can be students, dates, or circles. Since compare methods are different for different types of objects, you need to define a generic compare method to determine the order of the two objects. Then you can tailor the method to compare students, dates, or circles. For example, you can use student ID as the key for comparing students, radius as the key for comparing circles, and volume as the key for comparing dates. You can use an interface to define a generic compareTo method, as follows:
    21 : 21 Example of an Interface // This interface is defined in // java.lang package package java.lang; public interface Comparable { public int compareTo(Object o); }
    22 : 22 String and Date Classes Many classes (e.g., String and Date) in the Java library implement Comparable to define a natural order for the objects. If you examine the source code of these classes, you will see the keyword implements used in the classes, as shown below: new String() instanceof String new String() instanceof Comparable new java.util.Date() instanceof java.util.Date new java.util.Date() instanceof Comparable
    23 : 23 Generic max Method The return value from the max method is of the Comparable type. So, you need to cast it to String or Date explicitly.
    24 : 24 Declaring Classes to Implement Comparable You cannot use the max method to find the larger of two instances of Rectangle, because Rectangle does not implement Comparable. However, you can declare a new rectangle class that implements Comparable. The instances of this new class are comparable. Let this new class be named ComparableRectangle. ComparableRectangle ComparableRectangle rectangle1 = new ComparableRectangle(4, 5); ComparableRectangle rectangle2 = new ComparableRectangle(3, 6); System.out.println(Max.max(rectangle1, rectangle2));
    25 : 25 Interfaces vs. Abstract Classes In an interface, the data must be constants; an abstract class can have all types of data. Each method in an interface has only a signature without implementation; an abstract class can have concrete methods.
    26 : 26 Interfaces vs. Abstract Classes, cont. All data fields are public final static and all methods are public abstract in an interface. For this reason, these modifiers can be omitted, as shown below: A constant defined in an interface can be accessed using syntax InterfaceName.CONSTANT_NAME (e.g., T1.K).
    27 : 27 Interfaces vs. Abstract Classes, cont. Suppose that c is an instance of Class2. c is also an instance of Object, Class1, Interface1, Interface1_1, Interface1_2, Interface2_1, and Interface2_2. All classes share a single root, the Object class, but there is no single root for interfaces. Like a class, an interface also defines a type. A variable of an interface type can reference any instance of the class that implements the interface. If a class extends an interface, this interface plays the same role as a superclass. You can use an interface as a data type and cast a variable of an interface type to its subclass, and vice versa.
    28 : 28 Caution: conflict interfaces In rare occasions, a class may implement two interfaces with conflict information (e.g., two same constants with different values or two methods with same signature but different return type). This type of errors will be detected by the compiler.
    29 : 29 Whether to use an interface or a class? Abstract classes and interfaces can both be used to model common features. How do you decide whether to use an interface or a class? In general, a strong is-a relationship that clearly describes a parent-child relationship should be modeled using classes. For example, a staff member is a person. So their relationship should be modeled using class inheritance. A weak is-a relationship, also known as an is-kind-of relationship, indicates that an object possesses a certain property. A weak is-a relationship can be modeled using interfaces. For example, all strings are comparable, so the String class implements the Comparable interface. You can also use interfaces to circumvent single inheritance restriction if multiple inheritance is desired. In the case of multiple inheritance, you have to design one as a superclass, and others as interface. See Chapter 10, “Object-Oriented Modeling,” for more discussions.
    30 : 30 Creating Custom Interfaces public interface Edible { /** Describe how to eat */ public String howToEat(); } class Animal { } class Chicken extends Animal implements Edible { public String howToEat() { return "Fry it"; } } class Tiger extends Animal { } class abstract Fruit implements Edible { } class Apple extends Fruit { public String howToEat() { return "Make apple cider"; } } class Orange extends Fruit { public String howToEat() { return "Make orange juice"; } }
    31 : 31 class Chicken extends Animal implements Edible, Comparable { int weight; public Chicken(int weight) { this.weight = weight; } public String howToEat() { return "Fry it"; } public int compareTo(Object o) { return weight – ((Chicken)o).weight; } } Implements Multiple Interfaces
    32 : 32 Creating Custom Interfaces, cont. public interface Edible { /** Describe how to eat */ public String howToEat(); } public class TestEdible { public static void main(String[] args) { Object[] objects = {new Tiger(), new Chicken(), new Apple()}; for (int i = 0; i < objects.length; i++) showObject(objects[i]); } public static void showObject(Object object) { if (object instanceof Edible) System.out.println(((Edible)object).howToEat()); } }
    33 : 33 The Cloneable Interfaces package java.lang; public interface Cloneable { } Marker Interface: An empty interface. A marker interface does not contain constants or methods. It is used to denote that a class possesses certain desirable properties. A class that implements the Cloneable interface is marked cloneable, and its objects can be cloned using the clone() method defined in the Object class.
    34 : 34 Examples Many classes (e.g., Date and Calendar) in the Java library implement Cloneable. Thus, the instances of these classes can be cloned. For example, the following code Calendar calendar = new GregorianCalendar(2003, 2, 1); Calendar calendarCopy = (Calendar)calendar.clone(); System.out.println("calendar == calendarCopy is " + (calendar == calendarCopy)); System.out.println("calendar.equals(calendarCopy) is " + calendar.equals(calendarCopy));   displays calendar == calendarCopy is false calendar.equals(calendarCopy) is true  
    35 : 35 Implementing Cloneable Interface To declare a custom class that implements the Cloneable interface, the class must override the clone() method in the Object class. The following code declares a class named House that implements Cloneable and Comparable. House
    36 : 36 Shallow vs. Deep Copy House house1 = new House(1, 1750.50); House house2 = (House)house1.clone();
    37 : 37 Wrapper Classes Boolean Character Short Byte Integer Long Float Double NOTE: (1) The wrapper classes do not have no-arg constructors. (2) The instances of all wrapper classes are immutable, i.e., their internal values cannot be changed once the objects are created.
    38 : 38 The toString, equals, and hashCode Methods Each wrapper class overrides the toString, equals, and hashCode methods defined in the Object class. Since all the numeric wrapper classes and the Character class implement the Comparable interface, the compareTo method is implemented in these classes.
    39 : 39 The Number Class Each numeric wrapper class extends the abstract Number class, which contains the methods doubleValue, floatValue, intValue, longValue, shortValue, and byteValue. These methods “convert” objects into primitive type values. The methods doubleValue, floatValue, intValue, longValue are abstract. The methods byteValue and shortValue are not abstract, which simply return (byte)intValue() and (short)intValue(), respectively.
    40 : 40 The Integer and Double Classes
    41 : 41 The Integer Class and the Double Class Constructors Class Constants MAX_VALUE, MIN_VALUE Conversion Methods
    42 : 42 Numeric Wrapper Class Constructors You can construct a wrapper object either from a primitive data type value or from a string representing the numeric value. The constructors for Integer and Double are: public Integer(int value) public Integer(String s) public Double(double value) public Double(String s)
    43 : 43 Numeric Wrapper Class Constants Each numerical wrapper class has the constants MAX_VALUE and MIN_VALUE. MAX_VALUE represents the maximum value of the corresponding primitive data type. For Byte, Short, Integer, and Long, MIN_VALUE represents the minimum byte, short, int, and long values. For Float and Double, MIN_VALUE represents the minimum positive float and double values. The following statements display the maximum integer (2,147,483,647), the minimum positive float (1.4E-45), and the maximum double floating-point number (1.79769313486231570e+308d).
    44 : 44 Conversion Methods Each numeric wrapper class implements the abstract methods doubleValue, floatValue, intValue, longValue, and shortValue, which are defined in the Number class. These methods “convert” objects into primitive type values.
    45 : 45 The Static valueOf Methods The numeric wrapper classes have a useful class method, valueOf(String s). This method creates a new object initialized to the value represented by the specified string. For example:   Double doubleObject = Double.valueOf("12.4"); Integer integerObject = Integer.valueOf("12");
    46 : 46 The Methods for Parsing Strings into Numbers You have used the parseInt method in the Integer class to parse a numeric string into an int value and the parseDouble method in the Double class to parse a numeric string into a double value. Each numeric wrapper class has two overloaded parsing methods to parse a numeric string into an appropriate numeric value.
    47 : 47 Example: Sorting an Array of Objects Objective: The example presents a generic method for sorting an array of objects. The objects are instances of the Comparable interface and they are compared using the compareTo method. GenericSort Run
    48 : 48 TIP Java provides a static sort method for sorting an array of Object in the java.util.Arrays class. So you can use the following code to sort arrays in this example: java.util.Arrays.sort(intArray); java.util.Arrays.sort(doubleArray); java.util.Arrays.sort(charArray); java.util.Arrays.sort(stringArray);
    49 : 49 NOTE Arrays are objects. An array is an instance of the Object class. Furthermore, if A is a subclass of B, every instance of A[] is an instance of B[]. Therefore, the following statements are all true: new int[10] instanceof Object new GregorianCalendar[10] instanceof Calendar[]; new Calendar[10] instanceof Object[] new Calendar[10] instanceof Object
    50 : 50 CAUTION Although an int value can be assigned to a double type variable, int[] and double[] are two incompatible types. Therefore, you cannot assign an int[] array to a variable of double[] or Object[] type.
    51 : 51 Automatic Conversion Between Primitive Types and Wrapper Class Types JDK 1.5 allows primitive type and wrapper classes to be converted automatically. For example, the following statement in (a) can be simplified as in (b): JDK 1.5 Feature Integer[] intArray = {1, 2, 3}; System.out.println(intArray[0] + intArray[1] + intArray[2]); Unboxing
    52 : 52 NOTE to Instructor Optional path: You may cover Chapter 14, “Event-Driven Programming,” or Chapter 21, “Generics,” now
    53 : 53 Handling GUI Events Source object (e.g., button) Listener object contains a method for processing the event. HandleEvent Run Optional GUI
    54 : 54 Trace Execution public class HandleEvent extends JFrame { public HandleEvent() { … OKListenerClass listener1 = new OKListenerClass(); jbtOK.addActionListener(listener1); … } public static void main(String[] args) { … } } class OKListenerClass implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { System.out.println("OK button clicked"); } } 1. Start from the main method to create a window and display it animation
    55 : 55 Trace Execution public class HandleEvent extends JFrame { public HandleEvent() { … OKListenerClass listener1 = new OKListenerClass(); jbtOK.addActionListener(listener1); … } public static void main(String[] args) { … } } class OKListenerClass implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { System.out.println("OK button clicked"); } } animation 2. Click OK
    56 : 56 Trace Execution public class HandleEvent extends JFrame { public HandleEvent() { … OKListenerClass listener1 = new OKListenerClass(); jbtOK.addActionListener(listener1); … } public static void main(String[] args) { … } } class OKListenerClass implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { System.out.println("OK button clicked"); } } animation 3. Click OK. The JVM invokes the listener’s actionPerformed method

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