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    Add as FriendChapter 12: The Media

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    1 : Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural ApproachChapter 12 Media Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    2 : Chapter Overview Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Theories of media influence Five uses of media in adolescence Media and adolescent socialization Controversial media including TV and aggressiveness, computer games, TV and movies and sex, music (Rap and heavy metal) advertising, etc. A new medium – the Internet Media and globalization
    3 : Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Effects of media on adolescents are potentially profound Tracing those effects is complex
    4 : Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. The typical American adolescent: Listens to music 4 hours/day Watches TV 2 hours/day 50% go to a movie at least once a month 70% of girls read popular magazines 75% have access to computers 50% have access to Internet
    5 : Media Preferences by Age Group Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    6 : Displacement Effect Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Bryan, you should really go outside and get some exercise or visit your friends. You’ve been on that Internet chat room since before breakfast!! Just a couple more hours….
    7 : Theories of Media Influence Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. You be the judge! Overall, do you think media have more potential for positive or negative effects? Explain and think of examples. Two theories focused media effects: Cultivation Theory -- watching TV gradually shapes or cultivates a person’s worldview so it becomes like the worldview frequently depicted on TV Social Learning Theory – people are more likely to imitate behavior they see frequently modeled [in the media] and that behavior is rewarded (or at least not punished)
    8 : Uses & Gratification Approach Two principles: People make individual decisions about which media to consume (based on their individual differences and characteristics) People that consume the same media product will respond to it in different ways depending on their individual characteristics Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    9 : The Media Practice Model Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Identity motivates choice of media products Interpretation and evaluation of the media products Apply and Incorporate the content into identity
    10 : Five Uses of Media 1. Entertainment “to have fun” 2. Identity Formation “Forging who I am” 3. High Sensation “Seeking intense and new sensations” (thrill-seeking) 4. Coping “It helps me relax and de-stress” 5. Youth Culture Identification “I feel connected to my group” Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    11 : Why do you think watching television and listening to music have calming effects on adolescents’ emotions? Do you think the same effect would be true of emerging adults? Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    12 : Constructing Ideas Except “entertainment” all of the uses of media outlined in your chapter are said to be “developmental” What does this mean? Explain in terms of research and your own experience. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    13 : Media and Socialization Explosion in technology has transformed the cultural environment in terms of availability and diversity of media Adolescents draw materials from media that contribute to their socialization Media represent a broad socialization influence Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. You be the judge! What are your thoughts on age restrictions and access to media (e.g., parental warnings, etc.)
    14 : Media & other Socialization Sources Media is market-driven – providers will provide adolescents with what they believe adolescents want Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Great diversity of media available Media socialization “goes over the heads” of other socializing adults It is important to note: Not all of the media used by adolescents are contrary to the aims and principles of adult society – much of it in fact, is quite conservative. Think of media that reinforces conventional values….
    15 : Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. It is important to note! The portrait of media socialization presented in the previous slides applies to the contemporary West. Media socialization may be quite different in traditional cultures. Think about the impact of globalization.
    16 : Television and Aggressiveness Great deal of research attention focused on the extent to which television provokes violence in young people Majority of violent crimes committed by males aged 15-25 1960-1990 saw a rise in both violent crime and violent television programming Most of the research on the issue is correlational (can’t prove causation!) Many field studies have been conducted to address the question: Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Does watching violence on TV cause adolescents to become more aggressive, or are adolescents who are more aggressive simply more likely to enjoy watching violence on TV?
    17 : Do the two studies in the chapter (Eron & Huesmann’s longitudinal study; “Notel” study) persuade you that TV causes aggression in children and adolescents, or not? How would you design a study that would answer the question more clearly – or is that not possible? Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    18 : Computer Games & Aggressiveness A majority of adolescents’ favorite games involve themes of violence Studies have shown that playing violent computer games is related to heightened aggressiveness, hostility and anxiety Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Pause for Reflection: Do you play computer games? Which one (s)? Does it contain violent themes? Describe. How do you feel after playing it?
    19 : Sexual Portrayals on TV Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Research Summary (Cope-Farrar & Kunkel, 2002) 82% of programs had sexual content Sexual behavior more frequent than sexual talk Sexual behavior between partners with established relationship (not married) Kisses and hugs; Intercourse or nudity infrequent Discussion of sexual risk RARELY took place
    20 : Music TV: Basics MTV started in USA 1981 – now broadcast worldwide representing a force in globalization American adolescents watch MTV approx. 15-30 minutes a day Two categories: Performance Videos – just like a concert conveying the song Concept Videos – tell a story, like a mini-movie that enacts the lyrics of the song About 15% of videos contain violence (usually mild vs. severe violence) About 75% contain sexual themes (implied vs. explicit) Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    21 : Controversial Music: Rap “Rap is Black America’s TV station. It gives a whole perspective of what exists and what Black life is about” (Decker, 1994, p. 103) Discuss in terms of your own experience and…. Check out the chapter! Find out about research on controversial music
    22 : Thus far the cathartic effect has been studied only for heavy-metal music. Do you think this effect would be found for other types of music as well? What about for TV? Computer games? Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    23 : Big Tobacco & Advertising Cigarettes are the second most heavily promoted consumer product in the USA, totaling Six billion dollars per year Is it targeted to adolescents? 90% of smokers start by age 18 Ads present images of fun, independence, and “coolness” According to research, the effects of advertising on brand choice was three times as strong for adolescents as adults The three most popular brands are the most heavily promoted Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    24 : Adolescents’ Responses: Cigarette Ads Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. See the pattern??
    25 : Internet Uses by 12-15 year olds Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Searching for information for school projects Favor chat rooms on relationships and lifestyle Or with friends on instant messaging Boys more likely to play computer games & download music Girls more likely to visit chat rooms and email
    26 : What a Tangled Web…. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    27 : Media and Globalization Why Western media appeals to adolescents: Rapid social and economic change in developing countries in the past 50 years (youth have grown up with Western media) Adolescents are more capable than younger children of exploring the environment outside the family Adolescence is a time of identity formation – anticipating changes in their social world due to globalization and look outside the family for information Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
    28 : In many places, local media is coexisting with “imported” American media. What do you think the future will hold? Will local media be “obliterated”? What are the implications Discussion Stop Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach by Jeffrey Jensen Arnett. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Interesting Footnote: American movies are not listed as “foreign” films in Canadian video stores.

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