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    Add as FriendChildhood Obesity

    by: Farouk

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    2 : Over the last 20 years, obesity rates in children have risen greatly in many countries around the world.  USA 17 % overweight Australia 25% overweight or obese Kuwait 30% overweight 15% obese
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    5 : Obesity in adulthood Pediatric hypertension Type II diabetes mellitus Coronary heart disease and High cholesterol Lower self-esteem
    6 : DEFINING OBESITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Obesity is as an excessive accumulation of body fat. Obesity is present when total body weight is more than 25 % fat in boys and more than 32 % fat in girls.
    7 : BMI Body mass index (BMI) can determine if a child is obese, there are now also BMI guidelines in relation to childhood obesity. A child or adolescent’s body mass index (BMI) is determined by dividing their weight (kilograms) by their height (m2). BMI= weight kg/height m2)
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    10 : CAUSES OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY Childhood obesity has multiple causes centring on an imbalance between energy intake and energy out. Childhood obesity most likely results from interactions among nutritional, familial, psychological, and physiological factors.
    11 : The Family: the risk of becoming obese is greatest among children who have two obese parents. This may be due to parental modelling of both eating and exercise behaviours, indirectly affecting the child's energy balance. Low - energy Expenditure: Obesity is greater among children and adolescents who frequently watch television, due to three reasons: Little energy is expended while viewing Current consumption of high-calorie snacks during watching Food commercials
    12 : Heredity: influence fatness, regional fat distribution, and response to overfeeding. Infants born to overweight mothers may become less active and gain more weight by age three months, suggesting a possible inborn drive to conserve energy. The chance of being obese is: 50% if one parent is obese 80% if both parents are obese. 
    13 : Changing society: The overall cost of food has gone down. More food is prepared away from home. Energy-dense foods and drinks are readily available. Portion sizes of energy-dense foods have increased. The use of private transport has increased. The number of two-income families has increased. The time spent in paid employment has increased. The role of physical education in the school curriculum has reduced.
    14 : TREATMENT OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY Obesity is among the easiest medical conditions to recognize but most difficult to treat. Parents and healthcare professionals should be sensitive and focus on the positive. Small and achievable weight loss goals should be set to avoid discouragement. Programs should aim to slow or halt weight gain so the child will grow into his or her body weight over a period of months to years. Involvement of the entire family is also a motivating factor.
    15 : Three Forms of Intervention Include
    16 : PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Adopting a formal exercise program, or simply becoming more active, is valuable to burn fat, increase energy expenditure, and maintain lost weight.
    17 : DIET MANAGEMENT Balanced diets with moderate caloric restriction, especially reduced dietary fat. Diet management coupled with exercise is an effective treatment. Snacking is an important part of many children’s eating habits and shouldn’t be discouraged; just make sure the snacks are mostly low in calories. Fruits and vegetables make excellent snacks.
    18 : BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION Self-monitoring and recording food intake. Physical activity. Slowing the rate of eating. Limiting the time and place of eating. Using rewards and incentives for desirable behaviours.
    19 : SURGERY Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass have been performed successfully on adolescents. However surgery for adolescents is usually considered only when severe medical conditions are present that can improve with the surgery.
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    21 : THE ROLE OF SCHOOLS IN MANGEMENT OF OBESITY Schools cannot solve the obesity problem; but play an important role because: Majority of young people are enrolled in schools. Promotion of physical activity and healthy eating have been a fundamental component of the educational process. Research has shown that well-designed, well-implemented school programs can effectively promote physical activity.
    22 : CONCLUSION Obesity is easier to prevent than to treat. Prevention should focus on parent education as an important measure. The following can be helpful towards the problem.
    23 : In Infancy Promotion of breastfeeding. Recognition of signals of satiety. Delayed introduction of solid foods
    24 : In Early Childhood Education should include proper nutrition. Selection of low-fat snacks such as fruits and vegetables. Lower fat in meals. Lower sugar items. Good exercise/activity habits. Monitoring of television viewing.
    25 : THANK YOU

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