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    Add as FriendClassical Music 1770-1820

    by: Rogers

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    1 : Classical Music 1770-1820
    2 : 1750-1770 = ??? Active but often “nameless” period – sometimes known as “Pre-Classical” or GALLANT STYLE or Rococo C.P.E. Bach – more famous than his dad (J.S.)
    3 : Overview The SYMPHONY emerges CHAMBER MUSIC emerges OPERA continues & evolves Three major composers: HAYDN MOZART BEETHOVEN
    4 : LIFE-TIME-LINES BEETHOVEN 1770-1827 MOZART 1756-1791 HAYDN 1732-1809 1770 1820
    5 : The Classical Style CLARITY REGULAR PHRASES CONTRAST BECOMES STRUCTURAL, EVEN NARRATIVE MOTIFIC RATHER THAN MELODIC MOTIFIC MATERIAL IS “WORKED OUT”
    6 : Haydn
    7 : Listening example Haydn -- first movement from Sonata in C Major, No. 50 -- clarity of texture -- contrast of mood within one movement -- piano sonata (3-movement work for solo piano) -- short motific ideas rather than long melodies -- sonata form
    8 : The string quartet – a chamber music ensemble -- The string quartet as an ensemble is made up of 2 violins, viola and cello. -- The string quartet as a musical genre is a multi-movement work similar to the symphony in that it usually has 4 movements, usually I. sonata form – fast II. slow – lyrical, often variation form III. medium tempo dance movement IV. fast – rondo (ABACA) form
    9 : Listening example Haydn -- first movement from String Quartet in C Major, Opus 76 No. 3, "Emperor" -- clarity of texture -- four-part texture with different roles or personalities for each part, as if the music was a conversation among four people -- short motific ideas rather than long melodies -- sonata form, single theme
    10 : Haydn Don’t write this down: 104 symphonies 60 Piano sonatas 68 String quartets 25 Operas (10 lost) Masses & oratorios THE POINT: plenty of chances to experiment with form
    11 : Esterháza A private laboratory for Haydn and his development of classical forms - 30 years of support, isolated but not cut-off from the world . . . 2 operas & 2 concerts every week, almost daily chamber music, his own 25-member orchestra
    12 : A digression: the social status of the artist Velasquez proudly wearing a mark of distinction Haydn a (very glorified) servant Beethoven fancied himself to be independent – an entrepreneur
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    14 : The Classical Style CLARITY REGULAR PHRASES CONTRAST BECOMES STRUCTURAL, EVEN NARRATIVE MOTIFIC RATHER THAN MELODIC MOTIFIC MATERIAL IS “WORKED OUT”
    15 : Mozart listening example 1st movement fromSymphony No. 40 in G minor Minor key Sonata form – very clear motific p. 314-16 in text
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    17 : Mozart Only 35 years on the planet
    18 : Mozart 40+ symphonies string quartets piano sonatas 27 piano concertos masses 20 operas
    19 : Mozart listening example first movement from Symphony No. 35 in D Major, K. 385, "Haffner" -- begins with a huge leap; there is a variety of articulations and textures -- clarity of texture and clarity of musical ideas -- sonata form: the modulation to the second theme/key is complete at about 1:30; the development section starts at about 2:34; the recapitulation begins at about 3:29. -- major key -- the development section plays with the contrast of minor keys to the home key of the piece, which is major
    20 : Mozart listening example -- finale from Act II of The Marriage of Figaro -- an ensemble scene (six voices) -- contrasting emotions presented simultaneously (compare that to the Baroque ideal aesthetic of Affect, one mood or emotion per piece) 1786
    21 : Mozart and opera Da Ponte – librettist -- all voice ranges used (instead of the Baroque’s treble + bass preference) -- ensembles (groups of solo voices) now contrasted with arias and recitative -- several operas about contemporary characters, not mythological figures or ancient history from Rome or Greece (although he did a few of those, too) -- biting social commentary: the decadent aristocracy is compared to the normal, happy, healthy lust and love of the common folk -- recitative still used -- some in German with spoken dialogue
    22 : The Classical Style CLARITY REGULAR PHRASES CONTRAST BECOMES STRUCTURAL, EVEN NARRATIVE MOTIFIC RATHER THAN MELODIC MOTIFIC MATERIAL IS “WORKED OUT”
    23 : SUMMARY – 18TH CENTURY IDEAS – Enlightenment & rationalist Criticism ART – 3 genres: Rococo, Neo-Classical, Bourgeois (Genre) MUSIC – Genres such as the SYMPHONY and the STRING QUARTET emerge, all emphasizing CLARITY of musical ideas and the organization of CONTRAST, as exemplified by SONATA FORM key composers: HAYDN, MOZART & early Beethoven
    24 : NOT VS. HEART vs. HEAD EMOTION vs. INTELLECT
    25 : IT’S ALL EMOTIONS – IT IS A QUESTION OF WHAT KINDS OF EMOTIONS
    26 : Turkish rondo MOZART 3RD movement of a PIANO SONATA EXOTICISM – a romantic trait to come BALANCED, CLEAR PHRASES ? CLASSICAL

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