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    1 : “Cloud computing is simply a buzzword used to repackage grid computing and utility computing, both of which have existed for decades.” Definition of Cloud Computing 1
    2 : Cloud Computing Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models. 2
    3 : 3
    4 : History “Cloud“ used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network; later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. Details abstracted from end-users, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. 4
    5 : Evolution of cloud computing 5
    6 : Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with: Mainframe computer Autonomic computing Client–server Grid computing Peer-to-peer 6
    7 : 7 Foundational Elementsof Cloud Computing Virtualization Grid technology Service Oriented Architectures Distributed Computing Broadband Networks Browser as a platform Free and Open Source Software Autonomic Systems Web 2.0 Web application frameworks Service Level Agreements Primary Technologies Other Technologies
    8 : 8 The Traditional Server Concept Web Server Windows IIS App Server Linux Glassfish DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange
    9 : Traditional Server Concept Explained Servers considered as a whole unit that includes the hardware, the OS, the storage, and the applications. Often referred to by their function i.e. the Exchange server, the SQL server, the File server, etc. If the File server fills up, or the Exchange server becomes overtaxed: must add in a new server. 9
    10 : 10 Traditional Server Concept Contd. Unless there are multiple servers, if a service experiences a hardware failure, the service is down. Can implement clusters of servers to make them more fault tolerant. Even clusters have limits on their scalability, and not all applications work in a clustered environment.
    11 : Pros and Cons Pros Easy to conceptualize Fairly easy to deploy Easy to backup Virtually any application/service can be run from this type of setup Cons Expensive to acquire and maintain hardware Not very scalable Difficult to replicate Redundancy is difficult to implement Vulnerable to hardware outages In many cases, processor is under-utilized 11
    12 : 12 And if something goes wrong ... Web Server Windows IIS App Server DOWN! DB Server Linux MySQL EMail Windows Exchange
    13 : 13 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) layer between Guest OS and hardware
    14 : 14 Close-up * adapted from a diagram in VMware white paper, Virtualization Overview x86 Architecture VMM (Virtual Machine Monitor) Server 1 Guest OS Server 2 Guest OS Clustering Service Console Intercepts hardware requests
    15 : 15 The Virtual Server Concept Virtual servers seek to encapsulate the server software away from the hardware This includes the OS, the applications, and the storage for that server. A virtual server can be serviced by one or more hosts, and one host may house more than one virtual server.
    16 : 16 Virtual Server Concept Contd. Virtual servers can still be referred to by their function i.e. email server, database server, etc. If the environment built correctly, virtual servers will not be affected by the loss of a host. Hosts may be removed and introduced almost at will to accommodate maintenance.
    17 : 17 Virtual Server Concept Contd. Can be scaled out easily. If the resources supporting a virtual server are being taxed too much, admin can adjust the amount of resources allocated to that virtual server Server templates can be created in a virtual environment to be used to create multiple, identical virtual servers Virtual servers themselves can be migrated from host to host almost at will.
    18 : 18 Pros and Cons Pros Resource pooling Highly redundant Highly available Rapidly deploy new servers Easy to deploy Reconfigurable while services are running Optimizes physical resources by doing more with less Cons Slightly harder to conceptualize Slightly more costly (must buy hardware, OS, Apps, and now the abstraction layer)
    19 : The Cloud’s “Snowball Effect” Maturation of Virtualization Technology Virtualization enables Compute Clouds Compute Clouds create demand for Storage Clouds Storage + Compute Clouds create Cloud Infrastructure Cloud Infrastructure enables Cloud Platforms & Applications Multiple Cloud types lead to Cloud Aggregators Niche requirements enable Cloud Extenders 19
    20 : Characteristics Cost claimed to be reduced. Reliability improved if multiple redundant sites used. Performance monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures constructed using web services as the system interface. Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc. Maintenance is easier: do not need to be installed on each user's computer. 20
    21 : Layers Client Computer hardware and/or computer software relying on cloud computing for application delivery. Application Application services (SaaS). Platform Platform services (PaaS). Infrastructure Infrastructure services (IaaS). Server Computer hardware, software products specifically designed for delivery of cloud services. 21
    22 : Service Model Architectures 22
    23 : Cloud Service Delivery Models 23 IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service provisions computing resources within provider's infrastructure upon which they can deploy and run arbitrary software, including OS and applications. PaaS: Platform as a Service can create custom applications using programming tools supported by the provider and deploy them onto the provider's cloud infrastructure. SaaS: Software as Service use provider’s applications running on provider's cloud infrastructure.
    24 : 24 Three Features of Mature SaaS Applications Scalable Handle growing amounts of work in a graceful manner Multi-tenancy One application instance may be serving hundreds of companies Opposite of multi-instance where each customer is provisioned their own server running one instance Metadata driven configurability Instead of customizing the application for a customer (requiring code changes), one allows the user to configure the application through metadata 24
    25 : 25 SaaS Maturity Levels Level 1: Ad-Hoc/Custom Level 2: Configurable Level 3: Configurable, Multi-Tenant-Efficient Level 4: Scalable, Configurable, Multi-Tenant-Efficient 25 Source: Microsoft MSDN Architecture Center
    26 : Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) Definition – Platform providing all the facilities necessary to support the complete process of building and delivering web applications and services, all available over the Internet – Entirely virtualized platform that includes one or more servers, operating systems and specific applications 26
    27 : PaaS Example: Google App Engine Service that allows user to deploy user’s Web applications on Google's very scalable architecture Providing user with a sandbox for user’s Java and python application that can be referenced over the Internet Providing Java and Python APIs for persistently storing and managing data (using the Google Query Language or GQL) 27
    28 : Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) Definition – Provision model in which an organization outsources the equipment used to support operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components. – Also known as Hardware as a Service (HaaS). – Service provider owns the equipment; responsible for housing, running and maintaining it. – Client typically pays on a per-use basis. 28
    29 : IaaS Contd. 29
    30 : Characteristics of Infrastructure-as-a-Service(IaaS) Utility computing and billing model Automation of administrative tasks Dynamic scaling Desktop virtualization Policy-based services Internet connectivity 30
    31 : SaaS PaaS IaaS Amazon Google Microsoft Salesforce Service Delivery Model Examples 31
    32 : 4 Cloud Deployment Models Private cloud enterprise owned or leased Community cloud shared infrastructure for specific community Public cloud Sold to the public, mega-scale infrastructure Hybrid cloud composition of two or more clouds 32
    33 : Common Cloud Characteristics Cloud computing often leverages: Massive scale Homogeneity Virtualization Resilient computing Low cost software Geographic distribution Service orientation Advanced security technologies 33
    34 : Web-Scale & Large data centersProblems Characteristics: Definitely data-intensive May also be processing intensive Examples: Crawling, indexing, searching, mining the Web “Post-genomics” life sciences research Other scientific data (physics, astronomers, etc.) Sensor networks Web 2.0 applications 34
    35 : How much data? Wayback Machine has 3 PB + 100 TB/month (2009) Google processes 20 PB a day (2008) “all words ever spoken by human beings” ~ 5 EB NOAA has ~1 PB climate data (2007) CERN’s LHC generates 15 PB a year (2010) 640K ought to be enough for anybody. 35
    36 : Large Data Centers Web-scale problems? Throw more machines at it! Clear trend: centralization of computing resources in large data centers Important Issues: Redundancy Efficiency Utilization Management 36
    37 : The “Cloud” = 10X Improvements Ease of Use Scalability Risk Reliability Cost 37
    38 : Ease of Use Deploy infrastructure with a mouse or API Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps Do it yourself remotely from anywhere anytime 38
    39 : Scalability Dynamic provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads Control your infrastructure with your app 39
    40 : Risk Nothing to buy Cancel immediately Change instantly, even operating systems Throw it out Rebuild it instantly after testing RISK 40
    41 : Reliability Based on enterprise grade hardware Design for failures: Automatically spin up replacements Use multiple clouds 41
    42 : 42 Cost Control Cost Many systems have variable demands Batch processing (e.g. New York Times) Web sites with peaks (e.g. Forbes) Startups with unknown demand (e.g. the Cash for Clunkers program) Reduce risk Don't need to buy hardware until you need it
    43 : 43 Business Agility More than scalability - elasticity! Ely Lilly in rapidly changing health care business Used to take 3 - 4 months to give a department a server cluster, then they would hoard it! Using EC2, about 5 minutes! And they give it back when they are done! Scaling back is as important as scaling up
    44 : 44 Stick to Business Most companies don't WANT to do system administration Forbes says: We are is a publishing company, not a software company But beware: Do you really save much on sys admin? You don't have the hardware, but you still need to manage the OS!
    45 : 45 Provisioning Service Advantages Rapid reconstitution of services Enables availability Provision in multiple data centers/multiple instances Advanced honey net capabilities Challenges Impact of compromising the provisioning service
    46 : 46 Data Storage Services Advantages Data fragmentation and dispersal Automated replication Provision of data zones (e.g., by country) Encryption at rest and in transit Automated data retention Challenges Isolation management / data multi-tenancy Storage controller Single point of failure / compromise? Exposure of data to foreign governments
    47 : 47 Cloud Processing Infrastructure Advantages Ability to secure masters and push out secure images Challenges Application multi-tenancy Reliance on hypervisors Process isolation / Application sandboxes
    48 : 48 Cloud Support Services Advantages On demand security controls (e.g., authentication, logging, firewalls…) Challenges Additional risk when integrated with customer applications Needs certification and accreditation as a separate application Code updates
    49 : 49 Cloud Network and Perimeter Security Advantages Distributed denial of service protection VLAN capabilities Perimeter security (IDS, firewall, authentication) Challenges Virtual zoning with application mobility
    51 : 51 Cloud Computing Case Studies
    52 : 52 Google Cloud Started with Google Apps Platform as Service later on Replace office software Gmail Google Docs (word processing and spreadsheets) Google video for business Google sites (intranet sites and wikis) Google Cloud Connect 500,000+ organizations use Google Apps GE moved 400,000 desktops from Microsoft Office to Google Apps
    54 : 54 Windows Azure Applications, Storage, and Roles Cloud Storage (blob, table, queue) Web Role LB n Worker Role m Source: Microsoft Presentation, A Lap Around Windows Azure, Manuvir Das Three core components: Compute, Storage and Fabric
    55 : 55 Amazon Cloud Amazon cloud components Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) Simple Storage Service (S3) SimpleDB New Features Availability zones Place applications in multiple locations for failovers Elastic IP addresses Static IP addresses that can be dynamically remapped to point to different instances (not a DNS change)
    56 : 56 Amazon Cloud Users: New York Times and Nasdaq Both companies used Amazon’s cloud offering New York Times Used EC2 and S3 to convert 15 million scanned news articles to PDF (4TB data) Took 100 Linux computers 24 hours (would have taken months on NYT computers “It was cheap experimentation, and the learning curve isn't steep.” – Derrick Gottfrid, Nasdaq Nasdaq Uses S3 to deliver historic stock and fund information Millions of files showing price changes of entities over 10 minute segments “The expenses of keeping all that data online [in Nasdaq servers] was too high.” – Claude Courbois, Nasdaq VP Created lightweight Adobe AIR application to let users view data
    57 : 57
    58 : 58 Salesforce Cloud Started with information management service that could replace traditional business software technology Pioneered software-as-a-service market (esp. CRM tools) 5,000+ Public Sector and Nonprofit Customers use Salesforce Cloud Computing Solutions Moving beyond SaaS into the platform-as-a-service market
    59 : 59 in Government President Obama’s Citizen’s Briefing Book 134,077 Registered Users 1.4 M Votes 52,015 Ideas Peak traffic of 149 hits per second US Census Bureau Uses Cloud Application Project implemented in under 12 weeks 2,500+ partnership agents use for 2010 decennial census Allows projects to scale from 200 to 2,000 users overnight to meet peak periods with no capital expenditure
    60 : 60 VMware Cloud (vCloud) Goal: “Federate resources between internal IT and external clouds” Application portability Elasticity and scalability, disaster recovery, service level management vServices provide APIs and technologies
    61 : 61 Case Study: IBM-Google Cloud Google and IBM plan to roll out a worldwide network of servers for a cloud computing infrastructure Initiatives for universities Architecture Open source Linux hosts Xen virtualization (virtual machine monitor) Apache Hadoop (file system) “open-source software for reliable, scalable, distributed computing”
    62 : 62 Facebook’s Use of Open Source and Commodity Hardware 400 million users + 250,000 new users per day 100,000 transactions per second, 10,000+ servers Built on open source software Web and App tier: Apache, PHP, AJAX Middleware tier: Memcached (Open source caching) Data tier: MySQL (Open source DB) Thousands of DB instances store data in distributed fashion (avoids collisions of many users accessing the same DB)
    63 : 63 Are Hybrid Clouds in our Future? OpenNebula Zimory IBM-Juniper Partnership VMWare Vcloud
    64 : For more similar slide logon to 64
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