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    Direct Teaching of Spelling Rules Deb Culbertson, M.Ed. ESC-2

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    1 : Direct Teaching of Spelling Rules Deb Culbertson, M.Ed. ESC-2, Reading Consultant Great Books and Grand Conversations! 10th Annual Reading Conference TX A&M
    2 : Direct Teaching of Spelling Rules
    3 : Who Said This? “My spelling is Wobbly, It’s good spelling but it Wobbles. And the letters get in the wrong places…” Winnie-the-Pooh A.A. Milne, 1926
    4 : Who Said This? “It is a ****poor mind that can only think of one way to spell a word.” Andrew Jackson, 1833
    5 : Spelling - A Difficult Skill Listen, speak, then write Some cannot “see” the words as they spell them Difficulty hearing the phoneme Nothing to do with IQ giraffe ? skis ? friend f - r - e - i - n - d
    6 : Current Spelling Practices How are you teaching spelling today? Is it working? Why are we still doing it?
    7 : Resources Situation Spelling, Aylett R. Cox, Educators Publishing Service, 1977 Supporting Struggling Writers in the Elementary Classroom, Teresa A. Christenson, International Reading Association, 2002 Teaching Students with Learning Problems, Mercer and Mercer, Merrill Prentice Hall, 2001 Spelling: Development, Disability, and Instruction, Louisa Moats, York Press, 1995
    8 : 5 Stages of Spelling Precommunicative Spelling Scribbles shapes and letter-like shapes 3- to 5-year old Semiphonetic Spelling Some awareness of letters Two or three letters to spell a long word LF for laugh, DA for day 5- and 6 year olds Mercer and Mercer, 2001 Moats, 1995
    9 : 5 Stages of Spelling – cont.. Phonetic Spelling All essential sounds are in the spelling PEKT for peeked, KOM for come 6-year olds Transitional Spelling Begins to use conventions for spelling Afternewn for afternoon, trubal for trouble Misspells irregular words 7- or 8-year olds Mercer and Mercer, 2001 Moats, 1995
    10 : 5 Stages of Spelling -cont… Correct Spelling Applies basic rules of spelling Spells most words correctly Recognizes when a word is misspelled 8 or 9-years old Mercer and Mercer, 2001 Moats, 1995
    11 : What are the Characteristics of a Poor Speller? Does not recognize misspelled words Does not self-correct Limited use of vocabulary Limited writing Needs a lot of assistance
    12 : Spelling Strategy Students proofread their own writing and circle any word that “didn’t look right” caben Identify the part of the word that “didn’t look right” caben When correct spelling is identified, model and verbalize the thought process Begin to think for themselves instead of turning to others Christenson, 2002 e??
    13 : Important Words for Spelling The following words represent 18% of all words used in writing the of a to is in you Mercer and Mercer, 2001
    14 : Six Types of Syllables Open Syllable Closed Syllable Vowel Pair (Team) Syllable Vowel-Consonant-e Syllable Vowel-r Syllable Final Stable Syllable
    15 : Spelling Scientifically Teach sound/symbol Use a multisensory procedure for irregular words Determine whether a word is regular or irregular
    16 : Kinds of Spelling Phonetic spelling 85% or words are regular Rule spelling Floss, double, drop, change Situational spelling Spelling is determined by situation, position of letters in words
    17 : Spelling Rules Floss Rule Doubling Rule Dropping Rule Changing Rule Possessives and plurals will also be discussed
    18 : FLOSS Rule A one-syllable base word with one short vowel immediately before the final sounds of (f), (l), or (s) is spelled with ff, ll, or ss. off ball miss
    19 : FLOSS Rule Does the floss rule apply? (s) (t) (?) (f) (b) (?) (f) (p) ( r) (?) (f) Exceptions: yes, gas, bus, this, plus
    20 : Doubling Rule A base word ending in one consonant after an accented short vowel doubles the final consonant before a suffix beginning with a vowel. run + ing = running stop + ed = stopped
    21 : Doubling Rule bwVC’ Vowel Suffix Spelling hot + ness ? x hotness hot + er ? ? hotter thin + ing ? ? thinning thin + er ? ? thinner thin + ness ? x thinness track + er x ? tracker track + less x x trackless
    22 : Doubling Rule Accented Short V Vowel Suffix Spelling splug + er ? ? splugger splug + ness ? x splugness book + ing x ? booking mix + er ? ? mixer butter + ed x ? buttered refer + ed ? ? referred
    23 : Dropping Rule A base word ending in silent “e” drops “e” before a suffix beginning with a vowel. hope + ing = hoping shine + ing = shining slope + ed = sloped
    24 : Changing Rule A base word ending in “y” after a consonant changes “y” to “i” before any suffix (except one beginning with “i”). You change the babies not the boys!
    25 : Changing Rule bw. Cv not (i) Spelling •destroy + er x ? destroyer •enjoy + ment x ? enjoyment •try + ing ? x trying •try + ed ? ? tried •funny + est ? ? funniest • joy + less x ? joyless • ugly + er ? ? uglier ? ? ? ?
    26 : Changing Rule bw. Cv not (i) Spelling • reply + ing ? x replying • pity + ful ? ? pitiful • prayer + ful x ? prayerful • floy + ed x ? floyed • constry + ed ? ? constried • constry + ing ? x constrying ? ? ? ?
    27 : Rule Review Add Double Drop Change • shine + y ? • jolly + est ? • wood + en ? • melt + ed ? • drum + er ? • infer + ing ? • hope + less ? • lay + er ?
    28 : Rule Review Add Double Drop Change • shom + y ? • shome + y ? • stroof + ed ? • splate + ment ? • whilly + est ?
    29 : Spelling Test 1. sprand 2. sheff 3. quonks 4. cloppeting 5. kiffle 6. chooner 7. smaleness 8. cherge 9. jotch jock jodge 10. smayed 11. astry 12. ploisow 13. plaution 14. sleeng 15. consa 16. bartue A+ F
    30 : Consonants and Consonant Clusters C N G J S K Z
    31 : What is a consonant? A consonant is a letter that closes the mouth and the sound is blocked by the tongue, teeth, or lips.
    32 : Consonant Clusters ch ck dge ng ph qu sh tch th wh A consonant cluster is adjacent consonants that make one sound or an unexpected sound that it does not make in any other situation
    33 : When do you use “c” or “k”?
    34 : Initial or Medial (k) Spelling Use “k” in front of an “i”, “e”, or “y”. Use “c” in front of an “a”, “o” or any consonant. Exceptions: school, mosquito, moccasin, etc. Cox, 1977 (pp. 61-65)
    35 : When do you use “c”, “k”, or “ck” in final position?
    36 : Final (k) Spellings Use “k” in a one-syllable word when a consonant or vowel pair comes directly before the final (k). Use “ck” in a one-syllable word when a short vowel sound comes directly before the final (k). Use “c” in a word of more than one syllable when “k” is the final sound. Exceptions: attack, monarch, trek, disc, unique, Iraq, etc. Cox, 1977(pp. 61-65)
    37 : Use “ck” in a two-syllable word between a short vowel and “e”, “i” or “y”. pocket ticket “k” never doubles in English words. “c” when doubled usually has (ks) sound. success Medial “ck” Cox, 1977 (pp.61-65)
    38 : When do you use “s” or “c”?
    39 : Initial or Medial (s) Use “s” in one-syllable word. Use”c” in front of an “i”, “e” or “y” in a multi-syllable word. Use “s” in front of an “a”, “o”, “u” or any consonant in a multi-syllable word. Use “s” in initial position in any base word Exceptions: cent, science, eraser, celery, scene, etc.. Cox, 1977 (pp. 81-85)
    40 : Final (s) Use “ss” after a short vowel in a word of any length. —boss, address Use “ce” after a long vowel in a word of any length. —mice, replace Use “se” after a consonant, vowel, diagraph, or dipthong in a word of any length. —dense, defense Exceptions: fence, dance, force, etc. Cox, 1977 (pp. 81-85)
    41 : When do you use “s” or “z”? mannerism
    42 : Spelling Rules for (z) Initial Position Use “z” in a base word. Medial Position Use “s” between two vowels or before or after a consonant. Use “zz” when a short vowel is before a final stable syllable. Cox, 1977 (pp. 98-101)
    43 : Spelling Rules for (z) Final Position In final position, use “s” after a short vowel in a word of any length. Use “se” in any other situation other than after a short vowel. Cox, 1977 (pp. 98-101)
    44 : Spelling Rules for (z) Final Position in a Derivative Use “s” in suffix —ism Use “s” in plural or words ending in a voiced sound Use ‘s in possessives of words ending in voiced sounds Use “z” in suffixes —ize and —ization Cox, 1977 (pp. 98-101)
    45 : Exceptions for (z) Exceptions: quiz, buzz, fizz, fuzz, razor, wizard, blizzard, buzzard, xylophone, dessert, possess. Many words end in “ze”: haze, maze, breeze, freeze, size, prize, froze, doze, gauze, trapeze, etc. Cox, 1977 (pp. 98-101)
    46 : When do you use “g” or “j”?
    47 : Initial (j) Spelling Use “j” before sounds represented by “a”, “o” and “u”. Use “g” before sounds represented by “e”, “i”, and “y”. There are many exceptions to these rules Cox, 1977 (pp. 98-101)
    48 : When do you use “ge” and “dge”?
    49 : Final (j) Spelling Use “dge” in one-syllable base word after a short vowel sound. Use “ge” in all words except a one-syllable word after a short vowel sound. Exceptions: partridge, porridge, etc. Cox, 1977 (pp. 58-60)
    50 : Medial (j) Spelling Use letter “j” never doubles in English. The medial “j” is usually spelled “dg” between a short vowel and “e” or “y”. budget Cox, 1977 (pp. 58-60)
    51 : When do you use “ch” and “tch”?
    52 : Final (ch) Spellings Use “tch” immediately after one short vowel in a one-syllable word. Use “ch” after any other situation. Exceptions: rich, which, much, such Cox, 1977 (pp. 58-60)
    53 : Quick Review A short vowel sound in a one-syllable word will make you use the most letters. ck tch dge
    54 : When do you use “n” or “ng”?
    55 : Spelling Rules for (ng) Use “n” before (k) sound. Use “ng” in all other situations. Exceptions: tongue, meringue, etc.
    56 : What is a vowel? A vowel is a letter that is both open and voiced.
    57 : Vowel Pair Syllable A vowel pair syllable is adjacent vowels in the same syllable ai ee ea ay au aw ei eu ew ey ie oe oa oo ou ow oy ue
    58 : When do you use “oi” and “oy”?
    59 : Spelling Rules for (oi) In initial or medial position in a base word, use “oi”. In final position in a word of any length, use “oy” Exceptions: oyster, loyal, etc. Cox, 1977 (p. 35)
    60 : Sentence to Remember I don’t like to come last. Never use an “i” at the end of an English word.
    61 : When do you use “ai” and “ay”?
    62 : Spelling Rules for (a) “ai” is not regular for spelling. Teach students to use “a-e” or “a” cake, apron Use “ay” in final position in a word of any length Cox, 1977 (pp. 14-16)
    63 : I don’t like to come last. Remember this Sentence?
    64 : When do you use “ou” and “ow”?
    65 : Spelling Rules for (ou) Use “ou” in initial or medial position in a base word. Use “ow” in final position in words of any length. Exceptions: clown, brown, frown, prowl, etc. Cox, 1977 (pp.36-37)
    66 : I don’t like to come last and you don’t either. English Words do not end in the letter “u”. Sentence to Remember
    67 : When do you use “au” and “aw”?
    68 : Spelling Rules for (au) Use “au” in initial or medial position in a base word. Use “aw” in final position in a word of any length. Exceptions: crawl, brawn, ought, taught, caught, daughter, cough, etc. Cox, 1977 (pp. 33-34)
    69 : Additional Spelling Rule for (au) In a one-syllable word, when the (au) comes before (l) the most frequent spelling is “a”. ball salt chalk always also Cox, 1977 (pp. 33-34)
    70 : Spelling of (o) in Final Position Use “ow” in final position in an English word of any length snow show grow Use “o” in a musical, Italian, or Spanish word piano taco Cox, 1977 (pp. 25-27)
    71 : Vowel —r Syllable When “r” comes after a vowel, the vowel makes an unexpected sound. ar er ir or ur
    72 : Spelling Rules for (er) “er” is the most frequently used spelling pattern for (er) In accented syllable, could be “ir” or “ur” stir fur In unaccented syllable, could be “ar”, “ir”, “or” or “ur” dollar doctor Cox, 1977, (pp.40-42)
    73 : Spelling Rules for (er) After a “w”, (er) is spelled with “or”. Cox, 1977, (pp.40-42) word worm world work worry
    74 : Why do we spell these words this way? ? What sound is the “a” making? Why?
    75 : Spelling rules for (?) after (w) Use “a” after a “w” to give the (?) sound. Use “a” after a “qu” to give the (?) sound because “qu” says (kw). squash Use “a” after a “wh” to give the (?) sound because “wh says (hw). what Exceptions: father, calm Cox, 1977, (pp.7-8) o o mo
    76 : Final Stable Syllable Usually end in a consonant —le ble - ple dle - sle fle - tle gle - zle kle Cox, 1977, (pp.7-8) It usually sounds like the consonant —? —l. That is how most students spell them at first.
    77 : Ending —ed Cox, 1977, (pp.7-8) How do we teach it? ?????— ed ?????
    78 : When does —ed say (?d)? - Cox, 1977, (pp.7-8) ?
    79 : SOS Procedures 1. Look and listen 2. Echo and unblend Base word and affixes Syllables Individual sounds Apply rules, add affixes 3. Name the letters. 4. Write the letters 5. Code and read (proofing)
    80 : Practice SOS Procedures Students must first be able to hear the sounds Spelling deck Phonological activities Unblending of word Finger spelling Separate syllables Adding affixes separately Written spelling
    81 : Phonological Awareness Tasks Sound-to sound matching Word-to-word matching Sound-to-word matching Blending Deleting phonemes Moving phonemes Adding phonemes Phonemic segmentation Phonemic counting Phonemic classification
    82 : Spelling Notebook Teaches the process of spelling not the product Spelling should follow reading Poor visual memory Make time to teach the process! It is well worth the time it requires!
    83 : Spelling Deck Reviewed daily Shuffled daily Only those responses that have been introduced are reviewed Not all graphemes are regular for spelling Teacher names the sound, students echo, and name the letter or letters that make the sound. 85% of words are phonetically correct for spelling a

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