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1 : What is religion?What is Hinduism?Does GOD have a shape?
2 : What is religion? An ethical rules created for the harmony of the individual, family, society, nation and world created by society., nation and global partners. It is for the smooth running of life of individual, family, society and universe. It is of bodily rules, character rules and environmental rules.
3 : What is religion? a specific fundamental set of beliefs and practices generally agreed upon by a number of persons or sects A religion is an organized approach to human spirituality which usually encompasses a set of narratives, symbols, beliefs and practices, often with a supernatural or transcendent quality, that give meaning to the practitioner's experiences of life through reference to a higher power or truth.
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5 : Origin of Aryans Iran is the ancient name of Persia, and it is derived from the root "Arya" or Aryan, the Indo-European branch of peoples who settled in that land. The Aryans of ancient Iran were Mazdayasni Zarathushtris, ie. Worshippers of Ahura Mazda (the name of God in Avestan) as revealed by the ancient prophet Zarathushtra, thousands of years before Christ.
6 : Origin of Hindus Historians believe the original home of the Aryans was in the lands south of the Ural Mountains in what is now Kirghizstan. When life became tough, because food was scarce, drop in temperature and the pressure applied by the yellow-skinned tribes in the north, the Aryans began to move away in different directions. Some went to Greece, some to Iran, and some to Afghanistan. From the eastern front some groups moved to India. Dravidians
7 : The Hindu Settlements
8 : The Indus Valley The Indus Valley culture began to decline around 1800 BC, due possibly to flooding or drought. Until recently, it was held that the Aryans (an Indo-European culture whose name comes from the Sanskrit for "noble") invaded India and Iran at this time. According to this hypothesis, both the Sanskrit language and the Vedic religion foundational to Hinduism is attributable to the Aryans and their descendants. The original inhabitants of the Indus Valley are thought to have had a Dravidian language and culture, which became subordinate to that of the invading peoples.
9 : Aryans settlement Many of them settled along the banks of Saraswati river. They settled to an agrarian life, supplemented by cattle grazing. These settlers along the banks of Saraswati river came to be known as Saraswats. As time went on, the aryan settlers went south and east along the river valleys and occupied the land between the Himalayas in the north and the Vindhyas in the south. This land, the land of the Aryans, came to be called Aryabarta.
10 : Dravidians India was invaded and conquered by nomadic light-skinned Indo-European tribes (Aryans) from Central Asia around 1500-1000 BC. They overran an earlier and more advanced dark-skinned Dravidian civilization from which they took most of what later became Indian civilization. In the process they never gave the indigenous people whom they took their civilization from the proper credit but eradicated all evidence of their conquest. All the Aryans really added of their own was their language (Sanskrit, of an Indo-European type) and their priestly cult of caste that was to become the bane of later Indic society.
11 : The Dravidians The so-called pre-Aryan or Dravidian civilization is said to be indicated by the large urban ruins of what has been called the "Indus Valley culture" (as most of its initial sites were on the Indus river), or "Harappa and Mohenjodaro," after its two initially largest sites. In this article we will call this civilization the "Harappan" as its sites extend far beyond the Indus river. It is now dated from 3100-1900 BC. By the invasion theory Indic civilization is proposed to have been the invention of a pre-Vedic civilization and the Vedas, however massive their literature, are merely the products of a dark age following its destruction. Only the resurgence of the pre-Vedic culture in post-Vedic times is given credit for the redevelopment of urban civilization in India.
12 : Harappan Civilization In 1921, archaeologists uncovered evidence of an ancient civilization along the Indus River, which today runs through northwest India into Pakistan. The so-called Indus Valley civilization (also known as the "Harappan civilization" for one of its chief cities) is thought to have originated as early as 7000 BC and to have reached is height between 2300 to 2000 BC, at which point it encompassed over 750,000 square miles and traded with Mesopotamia.
13 : Is it really invasion? Between about 2000 and 1500 BCE not an invasion but a continuing spread of Indo-Aryan speakers occurred, carrying them much farther into India, to the east and south, and coinciding with a growing cultural interaction between the native population and the new arrivals. From these processes a new cultural synthesis emerged, giving rise by the end of the 2nd millennium to the conscious expressions of Aryan ethnicity found in the Rigveda, particularly in the later hymns "Hinduism: History: Aryan Invasion Theory" - BBC Religion & Ethics
14 : The Process The whole process of migration took place between 2000 to 1500 BC. They entered India from the north west and initially settled in the land between the tributaries of the River Indus. There were more than 1200 such settlements of migrants. The coming of Aryans marks the beginning of a historic period in India. Between the decline of Harappan civilization 1500 BC and 500 BC is a "dark" period about which little is known.
15 : The relations However, all the ancient Zoroastrian scriptures speak of an earlier homeland from where our people came, the lost "Airyane Vaejahi" or seedland of the Aryans. From this homeland, the Indo- Europeans or Aryans moved to upper India, Iran, Russia and the nations of Europe such as Greece, Italy, Germany, France, Scandinavia, England, Scotland and Ireland.
16 : The First King The "Vendidad" is one of the ancient scriptures of the Zoroastrians, actually called the "Vi-daevo-dat" or the law to fight against evil. In the first "Fargad" or chapter, the Golden Age of the ancient Aryans is outlined with their greatest king, "Yima Kshaeta" (Yam Raj in the Indian Vedas) who banished old age and death. Then, the ice age broke on the ancient home and the Aryans were forced to migrate southwards, to the southeast and the southwest.
17 : The Scientific Basis A 2001 examination of male Y-DNA by Indian and American scientists [which also incidentally includes Toomas Kivisild as one of the authors] indicated that higher castes are genetically closer to West Eurasians than are individuals from lower castes, whose genetic profiles are similar to other Asians.
18 : The discussions The main center of Harappan civilization is the newly rediscovered Sarasvati river of Vedic fame. While the Indus river has about three dozen important Harappan sites, the Sarasvati has over five hundred. The drying up of the Sarasvati brought about the end of the Harappan civilization around 1900 BC. As the Vedas know of this river they cannot be later than the terminal point for the river or different than the Harappans who flourished on its banks. Harappan culture should be renamed "the Sarasvati culture" and the Vedic culture must have been in India long before 2000 BC.
19 : The discussions Therefore it is necessary to set aside the discredited idea of the Aryan invasion and rewrite the textbooks in light of the new model, which is an organic and indigenous development of civilization in India from 6500 BC with no break in continuity or evidence of significant intrusive populations such as the invasion theory requires.(*2) Ancient India now appears not as a broken civilization deriving its impetus from outside invaders but as the most continuous and consistent indigenous development of civilization in the ancient world, whose literary record, the ancient Vedas, remains with us today. -Myth of Aryan Invasion of India - Dr. David Frawley.
20 : Time Line 2800-2000 BCE Indus Valley civilization. 1200-900 BCE Early Vedic Period - earliest Vedas are compiled. 900-600 BCE Late Vedic period - Brahmanical religion develops, emphasizing ritual and social obligation. 800-300 BCE The 11 major Upanishads are written, which include the ideas of reincarnation and karma. 500 BCE-1000 CE Epics and Puranas are written, reflecting the rise of devotional movements dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Devi. 5th cent. BCE Buddhism and Jainism founded in India. 320-185 BCE Mauryan Dynasty founded by Chandragupta. 320-500 CE Gupta empire. 500-650 CE Gupta empire divides into several kingdoms. 600-1600 CE Rise of devotional movements, puja (worship) rituals, and idea of equality of devotees. 7th-11th cent. Esoteric movements based on Tantras develop.
21 : 870-1280 Cholas dynasty. Hinduism arises in the south. 1498 European presence in southern Asia begins with the arrival of Vasco de Gama.
22 : Types of religion Semitic: BIBLE: Prophet NOHA : Shem Jews; Arabs; Assyrians; Phoenicians Non-Semitic Aryan Vedic Hinduism (Brahmanism) Non Vedic Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism Non Aryan Confucianism; Taoism (Chinese) Scientism (Japanese)
23 : Number of major religious people
24 : Hindu population Of the total Hindu population of the world, about 94% (890 million) live in India (i.e. Bharat). Nepal, some Indonesian islands, Bhutan, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, Fiji, Guyana, Singapore, and Suriname have significant density of Hindu populations. In Nepal and Bali the major religion is Hinduism and is still reflected in the traditional culture and architecture. Prior to the arrival of Islam, areas of the region now known as Afghanistan and Pakistan were also predominantly Hindu or Buddhist. Apart from these countries Bangladesh (14.4 million), Sri Lanka (3 million), Pakistan (2.5 million), Malaysia (1.5 million), United States (1.5 million), South Africa (1.1 million) and the Middle East (1 million) also have sizable Hindu populations.
25 : What are the basic tenets of Hinduism?: Dharma (ethics and duties) Samsara (rebirth) Karma (right action) Moksha (liberation from the cycle of Samsara) The Mahabharata (compiled by the sage Vyasa, probably before A.D. 400), describes the narration from Shri Krishna and is the only words given to us by incarnated God. Hinduism does not have any one founder
26 : Hinduism People residing in Indus valley: Hindu (Persian word). Vedas; Upanishads and Geeta. One GOD; Three God; Three hundred thirty million Gods. Pantheism (Every thing is devine and sacred).
27 : Idols Modern Hinduism grew out of the knowledge described in the Vedas. The earliest of these, the Rigveda centers on worship of the deities Indra and Agni, and on the Soma ritual. The Indo-Aryans used to perform fire-sacrifices called yajña (????) with the chanting of the Vedic mantras, but they built no temples, idols or icons.
28 : Vedas Sanskrit word: “vid” means to know or knowledge. Latin word: video means “one who knows and sees the truth”. Vedas: four samhitas: Rigveda: the oldest one 1017 hymns Praise of Gods and Godesses Devine beings identified with aspects of material nature and supernatural powers.
29 : Beginning of idols Varuna: God of ocean and sky Indra: the slayer of demons. Ushas: the goddess of dawn Aditee: theh goddess of earth and cosmic space Agni: the god of fire. Many other like wise
30 : Family of idols Brahman and his family Vishnu and his family. Mahesh and his family. Artists created their bodily figure. murti (statue in which divine presence is invoked) Unusual than humans: many hands, many heads. Animals as their vehicle. Place of stay unusual for human habitats. Power of giving the desire of humans.
31 : The origin of idols Law Giver: Manu Fire: the center of Vedic ritual Gain material rewards Health Longevity Qualified spouse Offspring Wealth Various manifestations of Ultimate Truth of Brahman, the supreme spirit and yet they are individuals as well. The great epic : Mahabharat and many puranas (praising the power of God and goddess.
32 : Idols Karma-kanda - a division of the Vedas which relates to the performance of ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites directed toward material benefits or liberation. Material benefits: Money: Laxmi Power to destroy enemy: Durga Education: Saraswati
33 : Division in Hindu Idol followers Vaishnavaswho worship the Lord as Vishnu; Saivaswho worship the Lord as Siva; and Saktaswho adore Devi or the Mother aspect of the Lord.
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35 : Nine facts of Hindu 1.Hindus believe in the divinity of the Vedas 2.Hindus believe in one, all pervading God 3.Hindus believe in endless cycles of creation 4.Hindus believe in Karma 5.Hindus believe that the soul reincarnates 6.Hindus believe that divine beings exist 7.Hindus believe that Guru is essential 8.Hindus believe that all life is sacred 9.Hindus believe in respect for all religions
36 : The differentiation Ramanandis: followers of Ramanands. They are well-known in upper Hindusthan (India). They are branch of the Ramanuja sect. They offer their worship to Lord Rama, Sita, Lakshmana and Hanuman. Vallabhacharins or Rudra Sampradayins(Rudra Sect) The founder was born in the forest Camparanya in 1479. He is regarded as an incarnation of Krishna. The mark on the forehead consists of two red perpendicular lines meeting in a semicircle at the root of the nose and having a round dot of red between them. The necklace and rosary are made of the stalk of the Tulasi (holy Basil plant).
37 : Four sects of Vaisnavas Ramanuja Acharya about the middle of the twelfth century . The followers of Ramanuja adore Vishnu and Lakshmi, and their incarnations. They are called Ramanujas or Sri Sampradayins or Sri Vaishnavas. The teachers are Brahmins. The disciples may be of any caste. They all recite the Ashtakshara Mantra: "Om Namo Narayanaya." They put on (display) two white lines and a central red line on the forehead.
38 : Example of sects being differentiated Vedantacharya, a follower of Ramanuja Northern School (Vadagalai) Southern School (Tengalai). The two sets have different marks on their foreheads. The Vadagalais make a simple white line curved like the letter U to represent the sole of the right foot of Lord Vishnu, the source of the River Ganga (Ganges). They add a central red mark as a symbol of Lakshmi. The Tengalais make a white mark like the letter Y that represents both the feet of Lord Vishnu. They draw a white line half way down the nose.
39 : The Chaitanyas (Hare Krishna Movement) The Chaitanyas worship Lord Krishna as the Supreme Being. All castes are admissible into the sect. The devotees constantly repeat the Name of Lord Krishna. The Vaishnavas of this sect wear two white perpendicular streaks of sandalwood paste or Gopichandan (a kind of sacred clay). Down the forehead uniting at the root of the nose and continuing to near the tip. They wear a close necklace of small Tulasi beads of three strings.
40 : 2. Rudra sect The Saiva Brahmins of the Tamil India have their title Aiyer. They are called Smartas. They all wear three horizontal lines of Bhasma or Vibhuti (holy ash) on their forehead. They all worship Lord Siva.
41 : 3. Shaktis The saktas are worshippers of Devi, the Universal Mother. Dakshinis, Vamis, Kancheliyas, Kararis are all Sakta sects.
42 : The other sects Arya samaj The followers of the Arya Samaj do not perform idol worship. Dayananda Saraswati. The Brahmo Samaj The Brahmo Samajists do not perform idol worship. Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Jains The Jains do not admit the divine origin of the Vedas. They do not believe in any Supreme Deity.
43 : Sects continues Seikhs Sikhism, while some of its' founding Guru's were Hindu, was created as a response to Hinduism and the reign of the Muslim Mughal empires.-KS Gidda Sikhs adopt the five Kakas, viz., 1. The Kes (uncut hair), 2. The Kachhca (short drawers), 3. The Kara (iron bangle), 4. The Kirpan (steel dagger), and 5. The Kangha (small-tooth comb worn in the hair). No sikhs smoke tobacco. The Udasis are an ascetic order of the Nanaksahi Sikhs. Srichand, son of Guru Nanak, embraced Sannyasa The Akalis are brave warriors. The Akalis wear a distinctive dress of blue, and a black turban.
44 : Other sects SaivasIn South India, there are Tamil Sannyasins who belong to the Kovilur Math and Dharmaputram Adhinam. They do not belong to the Sri Sankara order. They are Saivas. NagasNagas are Saiva Sannyasins. They are in a naked state. They smear their bodies with ashes. They have beard and matted locks. UdasisGuru Nanak’s order of ascetics is called Udasis. They correspond to Sannyasins and Vairagis. They are indifferent to the sensual pleasures of this world (Udasina). Hence they are called Udasis. VairagisA Vairagi is one who is devoid of passion. Vairagis are Vaishnavas. They worship Lord Rama, Sita and Hanuman. They read the Ramayana of Tulasidas. The mendicant Vaishnavas of the Ramanandi classs are the Vairagis. Sri Ananda, the twelfth disciple of Ramananda, instituted this ascetic order.
45 : Sects contd. SaivasIn South India, there are Tamil Sannyasins who belong to the Kovilur Math and Dharmaputram Adhinam. They do not belong to the Sri Sankara order. They are Saivas. NagasNagas are Saiva Sannyasins. They are in a naked state. They smear their bodies with ashes. They have beard and matted locks. UdasisGuru Nanak’s order of ascetics is called Udasis. They correspond to Sannyasins and Vairagis. They are indifferent to the sensual pleasures of this world (Udasina). Hence they are called Udasis. VairagisA Vairagi is one who is devoid of passion. Vairagis are Vaishnavas. They worship Lord Rama, Sita and Hanuman. They read the Ramayana of Tulasidas. The mendicant Vaishnavas of the Ramanandi classs are the Vairagis. Sri Ananda, the twelfth disciple of Ramananda, instituted this ascetic order.
46 : Sects contd. Gorakhnath PanthisGorakhnath was a contemporary of Kabir. He is regarded as the incarnation of Lord Siva. He calls himself as the son of Matsyendranath and grandson of Adinath. There is a temple of Gorakhnath at Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh. Bhartrihari was a disciple of Gorakhnath Nimbarka Sampradayis and Ramanuja SampradayisThese are Sadhus of the Nimbarka Sampradaya. They are Vaishnavas. The Sannyasins of the Ramanuja Sampradaya wear orange coloured cloth, a holy thread and tuft and Tri-danda or three-staff. At present, they are very few in number. Parinami SectSri Pirannath was the founder of this sect. He was born in 1675 at Jamnagarh, district Rajkot, in Kathiawar. He was the Devan (chief minister) of Raja Jam Jasa. The followers are to practise Ahimsa, Satya and Daya – non-violence, truthfulness and compassion.
47 : Sects contd Smarta Sect an ancient brahminical tradition reformed by Shankara in the ninth century. Worshiping six forms of God, this liberal Hindu path is monistic, nonsectarian, meditative and philosophical. Aum Namah Sivaya. follower of classical smriti, particularly the Dharma Shastras, Puranas and Itihasas. Hindu faiths of his time under the banner of Advaita Vedanta under the banner of Adi Shankaracharya.
48 : Samskara in Hiduisim There are 40 samskaras (purificatory rites). They are divided into three groups: a) A hnika Karmas (Daily rites) like Sandhya and five Mahayajnas. b) Grhya Karmas beginning from conception right upto funeral rites like Garbhadhana, Upanayana, Vivaha and Antyeshti. c) Srauta Karmas i.e. Haviryajnas and Somayajnas.
49 : Starting of Idols Temples are a place for darshan (vision of the divine), puja, meditation, and religious congregation (though not so regular and often as among the Muslims and the Christians) among other religious activities. Puja or worship, frequently uses the aid of a murti (statue in which divine presence is invoked) in conjunction with the singing or chanting of meditational prayer in the form of mantras. Devotional songs called bhajans (written primarily from the 14th-17th centuries), kirtan (devotional songs), and arti are sometimes sung in conjunction with performance of puja. This rather organic system of devotion attempts to aid the individual in connecting with God through symbolic communion. This form of icon and temple worship, puja, is integral to the Bhakti cult.
50 : Advaita Vedanta - Adi Sankara: The Pillar of Advaita Advaita Vedanta (IAST advaita vedanta; Devanagari ?????? ???????; IPA [?dvait? vé:da:nt?]) is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of philosophy of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita (total six). "Advaita" literally means "not two", and is often called a monistic or non-dualistic system which essentially refers to the indivisibility of the Self (Atman) from the Whole (Brahman). The key texts from which all Vedanta (lit., end or the goal of the Vedas) texts draw are the Upanishads (twelve or thirteen in particular), which are usually at the end of the Vedas, and the Brahma Sutras (also known as Vedanta Sutras), which in turn discuss the essence of the Upanishads.
51 : Advaita Vedanta - Three levels of Truth The transcendental or the Paramarthika level in which Brahman is the only reality and nothing else; The pragmatic or the Vyavaharika level in which both Jiva (living creatures or individual souls) and God (Ishvara) are true; here, the material world is completely true, and, The apparent or the Pratibhasika level in which even material world reality is actually false, like illusion of a snake over a rope or a dream.
52 : Advaita Sankara expounded the doctrine of Advaita — a nondualistic reality. According to Advaitins (followers of Advaita), Sankara exposed the relative nature of the world and established the supreme truth of the Advaita by analysing the three states of experience — being awake (vaishvanara), dreaming (swapna), and being in deep sleep (sushupti). The soul or the self (Atman) is exactly equal to Brahman. It is not a part of Brahman that ultimately dissolves into Brahman, but the whole Brahman itself.
53 : Char Dham Shankara established four monastries (mathas) in the four corners of Hinduism to guide the Hindu religion in the future. Each matha was assigned one Veda. The mathas are Jyothir Math at Badrinath in northern India with Atharva Veda; Sharada Math at Shringeri in southern India with Yajur Veda; Govardhan Math at Jagannath Puri in eastern India with Rig Veda and Kalika Math at Dwarka in western India with Sama Veda.
54 : Does God has a shape? In order to make the pragmatic life successful, it is very important to believe in God and worship him. In the pragmatic level, whenever we talk about Brahman, we are in fact talking about God. God is the highest knowledge theoretically possible in that level. Devotion (Bhakti) will cancel the effects of bad Karma and will make a person closer to the true knowledge by purifying his mind. Slowly, the difference between the worshipper and the worshipped decreases and upon true knowledge, liberation occurs.
55 : Advaita Vedanta - Advaita and Science According to some followers of Advaita, it may very well be a place where the scientific world intersects with the spiritual world. They point to the relationships between mass, frequency, and energy that 20th century physics has established and the Advaitic 'Unity of the Universe' as the common ground. They feel that these relationships, formalized as equations by Planck and Einstein, suggest that the whole mesh of the Universe blend into a One that exhibits itself as many (namely, mass, energy, wave etc), and that this follows Advaita's view that everything is but the manifestation of an omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent "One".
56 : Advaita Vedanta - Later teachers and proponents Shri Ramakrishna (1836-1886) Shai Baba of Shirdi (1838-1918) Shri Narayan Guru (1856-1928) Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950) Shri Ramana Maharshi (1879-1950) Shri Swami Sivananda (1887-1963) Shri Swami Daya Nanda Saraswati (Arya Samaj) Brahmakumari (1936) Shri Satya Sai Baba (largest followers)
57 : tat tvam asi (Sanskrit: "thou art that"), in Hindu philosophy, the famous expression of the relationship between the individual and the absolute. The statement is frequently repeated in the sixth chapter of the Chandogya Upanisad (c. 600 BC), as the teacher Uddalaka Aruni instructs his son in the nature of the supreme reality. The identity expressed in this judgment was variously interpreted by the different schools of the orthodox philosophy of Vedanta. The phrase was given its most literal interpretation by the 8th-9th-century thinker Sankara of the Advaita (Nondualist) school, for whom the statement was one of the great assertions fundamental to his doctrine.
58 : Those whose intelligence has been stolen by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own natures. Bhagwad Geeta chapter 7 Verse 20 .
59 : Upanishads: “Ekam evaditiyam” He is the One only without a second Chandogya Upanishad 6:2:1
60 : “Na casya kasuj janita na cadhipas Of Him there are neither parents nor Lord Svetasavatara Upanishad 6, 9
61 : “Na tasya pratima asti” There is no likeness of him. Svetasvatara Upanishad Chapter 4: 19
62 : “Nainam urdhvam na tiryancam na madhye na parigagrabhat na tasya pratime asti yasya nama mahad yasah There is no likeness of Him whose name is great glory. The principal Upanishad by S. Radhakrishnan pg 736 & 737
63 : “ Na samdrese tisthati rupam asya, na caksusa psyati kas canaiam, Hrda hrdistham manasa ya enam, evam vidur amrtas te bhavanti” His form is not to be seen; no one sees Him with the eye. Those who through heart and mind know Him as abiding in the heart become immortal Svetasvatara Upanishad 4:20
64 : Yajur Ved “Na tasya pratima asti” There is no image of him Yajurved 32:3
65 : “There is no image of Him whose glory verily is great. He sustains within Himself all luminous objects like the Sun etc. May He not harm me, this is my prayer. As his is unborn, He deserves worship” Yajurveda by Devi Chand pge 377.
66 : He is body less and pure Yajurved 40: 8
67 : “Andhatama pravishanti ye asambhuti mupaste” They enter darkness, those who worship natural things. They sink deeper in darkness those who worship sambhuti . Yajurved 40: 9
68 : Sages call one God by many names Rigveda 1:164; 46
69 : “Ma chidanyadvi shansata” O friends, do not worship anybody but Him, the Devine one. Rigveda 8:1:1
70 : “ The wise yogis concentrate their minds; and concentrate their thought as well in the Supreme Reality, which in Omnipresent, Great and Omniscient. He is one, knowing their functions, assigns to the sense organs their respective tasks. Verily, great is the glory of to Divine Creator” Rigveda 5:81
71 : “Ekam Brahm, dvitiya naste neh noa naste kinchan” There is only one God, not the second; not at all , not at all, not in the least bit. Brahma Sutra
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73 : Hamas Hazboolah Palestenian Islamic jihad
74 : Idol beliefs produce self-fulfilling prophecies

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