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    Add as FriendENCAPSULATION OF MENTHOL IN BEESWAX BY A SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TECHLIQUE

    by: Rama

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    1 : ENCAPSULATION OF MENTHOL IN BEESWAX BY A SUPERCRITICAL FLUID TECHLIQUE INDIRA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SARANG BY ARUNA KUMAR PATRO ROLL NO. 28533 7TH SEM 1
    2 : OUTLINES INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE ANALYSIS METHOD RESULT AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS REFERRENCES 2
    3 : INTRODUCTION Natural menthol exists in peppermint and other mint oils, having minty odor. It is widely used as tobacco flavour to manufacture menthol cigarettes and cover miscellaneous gases. However, the melting temperature of menthol is 42 ~ 43?C at atmospheric pressure, which makes it easy to sublimate. the control and detection of menthol transfer is an important issue during the production, storage, and smoking of menthol cigarette. 3
    4 : CONTINUE.. In this study, the used wall material is beeswax, which has special fragrance of honey and flour. It can melt at 62~67?C at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, beeswax completely turns to liquid in the condition of 15MPa and 55.2?C as tested by using laboratory equipment Particles from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS) process proposed by Weidner et al. Employed supercritical fluid technology to prepare micro particles. Due to the high volatility of menthol, this research will use a modified PGSS process which can control the flow rate of the gas-saturated solution to prepare the menthol/beeswax particles aimed at preventing menthol from volatilization loss. 4
    5 : EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS Menthol (purity>= 99%) Beswax (mixture) co2 gas Anhydrous ethanol(analytical grade), eteher (analytical grade) and acetophenone (analytical grade) 5
    6 : EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE The modified PGSS process used in this experiment is shown in Figure. The process can be operated at relatively low temperature due to the depression of the melting temperature of solid solute in high pressure of CO2. The block problem in the nozzle in conventional PGSS process can be effectively reduced with controlling the flow rate of the gas-saturated solution and the corresponding coaxial nozzle designed The solute can be mixed with CO2 efficiently by using E2 to form gas-saturated solution. 6
    7 : CONTINUE.. PROCEDURE CO2 is compressed into the gas damper to the desired pre-expansion pressure and enters the thermostatic system. CO2 is divided into two parts: one passes through the preheater C and valve 4. another passes through valve 1 into the high-pressure mixing vessel and mixes with solid materials. The gas-saturated solution is pumped by E2 into the vessel for cycling and mixing with a relatively large flow rate (such as more than 5~10mL/min) in the case of fast mixing 7
    8 : CONTINIUE.. After mixing, E1 works after opening valve 3 with a flow rate of 0.1~1mL/min to charge the gas-saturated solution into the inner tube of the nozzle system. This gas-saturated solution is atomized by the CO2 from the external tube through a disc F with a laser-drilled orifice of 80 µm into the collector G to form fine particles. The overall flow rate of CO2 exhausted is measured by a gas flow meter after filtration. All the particles in the collector were taken out after the experiment and stored in a sealed bottle 8
    9 : Figure : Schematic diagram of the modified PGSS process. A: CO2 cylinder; B: compressor; C: preheater; D: mixer; E#: high-pressure pump; F: double-pass nozzle; G: precipitant; P: pressure gauge; T: thermometer; V#: valve; FM: flow meter; TC: temperature controller; LF#:filter; BPR: back pressure valve. 9
    10 : Table: Experiment conditions. 10 P0: opterating pressure; T0: operating temperature = 60?C; D: nozzle size= 80 µm; L: the flow rate of solution (calibrated with pure water at high pressure); C0: mass fraction of menthol in the menthol/beeswax mixture; C: measured menthol mass fraction in the produced menthol/beeswax particles.
    11 : ANALYSIS METHOD The menthol encapsulation efficiency in the menthol/beeswax particles is calculated by encapsulation efficiency (%)= total menthol(g) - menthol on the surface (g) 100 total menthol(g) menthol release (%)= menthol content g at time t 100 initial menthol content g 11
    12 : RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 12
    13 : CONCLUSION A modified PGSS process with control of gas-saturated solution flow rate was used to produce menthol/beeswax micro particles in order to protect menthol from volatilizing. The effect of the process parameters, namely, the preexpansion pressure, the gas-saturated solution flow rate, and the menthol mass fraction in menthol/beeswax mixture, on the particle size, particle size distribution, and menthol encapsulation efficiency was investigated. 13
    14 : REFERRENCE S.Gouin, “Microencapsulation: industrial appraisal of existing technologies and trends,” Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 7-8, pp. 330–347, 2004. J. J. Hee, “A study on menthol migration patternsin different mentholated cigarettes,” Journal of the Korea Society of Tobacco Science, vol. 23, pp. 77–81, 2001. R. H. Peng, “Menthol composite particles prepared by phase separation-coacervation method experiment,” Tobacco Science, vol. 8, pp. 27–28, 2003. J. Li, M. Rodrigues, A. Paiva, H. A. Matos, and E. G. De Azevedo, “Binary solid-liquid-gas equilibrium of the tripalmitin/CO2 and ubiquinone/CO2 systems,” Fluid Phase Equilibria, vol. 241, no. 1-2, pp. 196–204, 2006. I. Garay, A. Pocheville, and L. Madariaga, “Polymeric microparticles prepared by supercritical antisolvent precipitation,” Powder Technology, vol. 197, no. 3, pp. 211–217, 2010. E.Weidner, R. Steiner, Z. Knez, and Z. Novak, “Powder generation form polyethyleneglycols with compressible fluids,” High Pressure Chemical Engineering, vol. 12, pp. 223–228, 1996. 14
    15 : CONTINUE.. M. Rodrigues, N. Peiric¸o, H. Matos, E. Gomes De Azevedo, M. R. Lobato, and A. J. Almeida, “Microcomposites theophylline/ hydrogenated palm oil from a PGSS process for controlled drug delivery systems,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 29, no. 1-2, pp. 175–184, 2004. X.Wang, Y. N. Guo, H. Chen et al., “Composite microparticles of ibuprofen/lipid generated by supercritical fluids from their melts,” Frontiers of Chemical Engineering in China, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 361–367, 2008. K. Vezz `u, C. Campolmi, and A. Bertucco, “Production of lipid microparticles magnetically active by a supercritical fluidbased process,” International Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 2009, Article ID 781247, 9 pages, 2009. M. Pemsel, S. Schwab, A. Scheurer, D. Freitag, R. Schatz, and E. Schl¨ucker, “Advanced PGSS process for the encapsulation of the biopesticide Cydia pomonella granulovirus,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 53, no. 1–3, pp. 174–178, 2010. J. Li, M. Rodrigues, A. Paiva, H. A. Matos, and E. G. De Azevedo, “Modeling of the PGSS process by crystallization and atomization,” AIChE Journal, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2343–2357, 2005. 15
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