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    Endometrial Hyperplasia

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    1 : Endometrial Hyperplasia S.Laxiny, Medical Student, FHCS, EUSL.
    2 : Endometrial Hyperplasia Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition of excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium-Endometrial glands & surrounding tissue(Stroma). Endometrial hyperplasia is a non-cancerous condition. May involve part or all of the endometrium.
    3 : Hyperplasia usually develops in the presence of continuous estrogen stimulation unopposed by progesterone. The female hormones—estrogen and progesterone—control the changes in the uterine lining. Estrogen builds up the uterine lining. Progesterone maintains and controls this growth. Estrogen without enough progesterone may cause the lining of the uterus to thicken. Pathogenesis
    4 : Risks for developing Endometrial Hyperplasia Estrogen replacement therapy -Take estrogen without progesterone to replace the estrogen their body is no longer making and to relieve symptoms of menopause Polycystic ovary syndrome- women are anovulatory and have unopposed estrogen effect. Estrogen producing tumours (e.g. granulosa cell tumour). Irregular Menstrul Periods-Skip menstrual periods or have no periods at all –continuous unopposed estrogen activity. Perimenopause period Overweight Diabetes Mellitus
    5 : Classification of endometrial hyperplasia Simple hyperplasia (cystic without atypia) Complex hyperplasia (adenomatous without atypia) Atypical simple hyperplasia (cystic with atypia) Atypical complex hyperplasia (adenomatous with atypia)
    6 : Simple Endometrial Hyperlasia Simple or Cystic Hyperplasia Proliferation of glands and stroma. Glands vary in size, some are cystic. The epithelial cells are active with stratification and mitoses
    7 : Complex Endometrial Hyperlasia a very complex gland pattern abnormally shaped glands, in- and out-pouching. Glands are crowded with very little endometrial stroma,
    8 : Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia Increased gland density Nuclear atypia - hyperchromatic, enlarged epithelial cells with an increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio. Resembles well differentiated carcinoma.
    9 : Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia On high power view the nuclear atypia can be seen: Nuclei are of variable size, shape and chromatin distribution; prominent nucleoli.
    10 : Symptoms of Endometrial Hyperplasia Vaginal discharge Abdominal pain Bleeding between menstrual periods Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods
    11 : Progression of Endometrial Hyperplasia Hyperplasia without atypia rarely progresses to endometrial cancer, Hyperplasia with atypia is a precancerous condition that may progress to overt malignancy.
    12 : Investigations Vaginal ultrasound Endometrial biopsy Dilation and curettage (D&C) Hysteroscopy
    13 : Vaginal ultrasound
    14 : Focal Simple Hyperplasia
    15 : Atypical Hyperplasia
    16 : Treatment In most cases, endometrial hyperplasia can be treated with medication that is a form of the hormone progesterone. Taking progesterone will cause the lining to shed and prevent it from building up again. It often will cause vaginal bleeding. Treatment for endometrial hyperplasia without Atypia In hyperplasia without atypia, cyclical progestin therapy is the recommended choice in women not seeking contraception. 10 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 to 14 days a month for 3 to 6 months. If they have a normal biopsy and are asymptomatic, discontinue therapy. If the hyperplasia is persistent, then continuous-dose progestin therapy is instituted with 20 mg/day for 3 to 6 months In women desiring contraception, OCP can be used or an injectable depot preparation of medroxyprogesterone acetate ( Depo-Provera ) can be administered in the normal dose used for contraception - 150 mg every 12 weeks.
    17 : Commonly Used Progesterone- Only Agents Generic Name Common Trade Names Common Dosage Progesterone Crinone;Progestasert; Prometrium 200 mg PO Medroxyprogesterone Provera 10-20 mg PO Acetate Depo-Provera 150 mg IM Megestrol acetate Megace 40-320 mg PO Levonorgestrel Mirena IUS 1 intrauterine every 5 years
    18 : Treatment for Atypical endometrial hyperplasia Ideal management is hysterectomy If hysterectomy is not a viable option for young patient & patient is a very poor surgical candidate), high-dose continuous progestin therapy can be used. Typically, 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily. Another option is 40 to 160 mg megestrol acetate daily for 6 months. biopsies every 6 months because of the high risk of recurrence.
    19 : Protecting Against EndometrialHyperplasia Take estrogen with progesterone after menopause, Women who don't have regular periods-Take oral contraceptives contain estrogen along with a form of progesterone. If you are overweight, losing weight may help.
    20 : Thank You

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