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    Add as FriendFood Sanitation

    by: Rogers

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    1 : Food Sanitation EMD 545b Lecture #13
    2 : Food borne Illness Range 20 - 80 million cases a year (U.S.) 325,00 hospitalizations, 5,000 deaths (U.S.) 10 - 83 billion cost from absence from work or school, medical costs Generally fecal-oral transmission food borne infection - invasion by the organism with multiplication or toxin production in the host. food borne intoxication - growth in food source with toxin production before ingestion
    3 : Agents Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens Staphylococci, Salmonella, Shigella Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli 0157:H7 Vibrio parahaemolyticus Hepatitis A, Norwalk virus, Rotavirus Calicivirus, Listeria monocytogenes Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Bacillus cereus Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora
    4 : Food borne Diseases Infection long incubation period (days) diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps. Fever often Salmonella, Hepatitis A Listeria, Giardia Vibrio, Campylobacter Norwalk virus Intoxication short incubation period (minutes - hours) Vomiting, nausea, double vision, weakness, numbness, disorientation C. botulinum Staph aureus certain fish/ shellfish
    5 : Outbreaks 2 or more cases associated in time and place E. coli 0157:H7 (Northwest) Cryptosporidium (Milwaukee) Norwalk virus (Cruise ships) Vibrio cholerae (South America) Listeria (New York, New Jersey, CT)
    6 : Surveillance Collection and analysis of data of food borne illness - goal to protect public Identify irregular patterns Notify affected entities Who, when, what, where? Food items, types of contaminant(s), factors associated with the illness
    7 : Natural Barriers to Infection Stomach acid pH 2 GI Tract immune system normal intestinal flora bile acids and digestive enzymes
    8 : Increased Susceptibility Gastrectomy acid blockers for ulcers antacids, excessive consumption of water buffering capacity of food- milk, fatty foods antibiotic therapy very young, old immunocompromised stress, poor hygiene, underdeveloped areas
    9 : Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) System to monitor food service process Purchase ? Serving Framework of control procedures Identifies “Critical Control Points” (CCP’s) Points in process where hazards may be introduced Reduce risk of food borne illness
    10 : Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) Purchasing Receiving Storing Preparing Cooking Serving and holding Cooling Reheating
    11 : Purchasing Evaluate suppliers Compliance with federal/state health standards Check inspection records Trained employees Temperature controlled delivery Safe/sanitary packaging Create “specifications” for acceptance Reject substandard items Schedule delivery during “slow” times
    12 : Approved Food Sources Licensed food distributor/establishment Compliance with State Public Health Code USDA inspected meat, poultry Verify supplier as a safe source Fish from safe, unpolluted waters Pasteurized milk only Inspect suppliers facilities
    13 : Receiving Verify safe/fresh foods Inspect upon delivery Appearance, odor, contamination, expiration dates, condition of containers Reject “thawed/refrozen” items (large ice crystals) Reject swollen/rusted/damaged cans Check temperature of refrigerated foods
    14 : Receipt & Storage Check supplies upon receipt for: signs of spoilage color, odor, texture, slime, mold, dirt, insects swollen, pierced, rusted, wet containers Quality, temperature, general condition Arrange delivery for off-peak hours Plan ahead to ensure sufficient storage space
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    16 : Receiving Transfer to proper storage promptly Create space for new stock Clean transport carts Date foods (arrival or “use by” date) Pest control Clean, well lit areas
    17 : Storing Dry storage Clean/orderly, items 6” off floor Good ventilation, 50 – 70 F (verify temp periodically) First In, First Out (FIFO) rotation Dating packages, place new to rear Clean spills promptly, trash kept out of room Segregate cleaning supplies (avoid contamination)
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    19 : Storage Purchase foods that will be used ASAP Place in properly maintained storage area Use food quickly Keep potentially hazardous food outside of danger zone < 40 F --> Danger <---- < 140 F Keep cleaning materials away from food
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    21 :
    22 : Storing Refrigerated storage < 40 F (colder preferred, Verify periodically) Don’t overload Allow for air transfer (slotted shelves) Date items Properly sealed Raw/uncooked on bottom – away from ready to eat foods
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    24 : Storing Freezing 0 F, store foods immediately For foods that are frozen upon receipt Slotted shelves (circulation) Use moisture proof containers/wrappings Avoid multiple entries Segregate large warm “container” into smaller ones
    25 : Preparing Thawing and Marinating Keep foods out of temperature danger zone 40 F < Danger < 140 F Never thaw on counter or non-refrigerated area Use refrigerator – in pan on bottom shelf Under running water (70 F) < 2 hours Marinate meats/fish in refrigerator Avoid cross contamination (never reuse) Sanitize cutting boards, knives between use
    26 : Preparation Handle raw, high risk foods in separate area at separate time (Border Café in Cambridge, MA) Sanitize surfaces/equipment immediately after contact with potentially hazardous food Hand washing prior to handling food ill or infected workers not allowed to handle food For big or catered events, hold reference sample of all foods served for 72 hours
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    28 : Potentially Hazardous Foods Beef, poultry, pork, gravies, soups Meat or fish stuffing Finfish, shellfish, raw fish Dairy products Eggs, cream-filled pastries, custards Vegetables (cooked, raw sprouts, cabbage) Starchy foods (grains, rice, potatoes)
    29 : Cooking Cook foods to proper internal temperature Internal temp of 165 F Stir foods in deep pots frequently Regulate size/thickness of foods (uniformity) Validate cooking times/temperatures Check thickest part of the food Always use sanitary cooking/serving utensils Never touch prepared foods with bare hands
    30 : The Safe Food Handler Training Food borne infection Reporting to public health authorities Carrier state during incubation, illness or recovery asymptomatic chronic shedding Salmonella typhi (Typhoid Mary) Personal hygiene
    31 : Serving and Holding Keep hot food above 140 F Steam tables, keep food covered Stir foods to ensure even heating Keep cold food below 40 F Refrigeration unit/ice Check temperature periodically Sanitize thermometer after each use Discard food held in danger zone (4 hours) Never add “fresh” food to food already out for serving
    32 : Serving and Holding Wash hands before serving food Clean/sanitary long handled ladles and spoons for serving Never touch parts of cups/plates that will have contact w/food Cover cuts w/ bandages and cover with gloves Change gloves after contact with contaminated surface
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    34 : Serving and holding Sneeze guards Avoid cross-contamination Pre-wrap as much food as possible Watch customer behavior – remove contaminated food
    35 : Serving Rigid personal hygiene requirements handling raw food touching unclean surfaces or equipment Keep hands away from face, head no smoking, eating, handling money hand washing following restroom use adequately cover cuts, abrasions no gum chewing, spitting, coughing clean work clothes, hair restraints used
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    37 : Serving Don’t wear jewelry Use utensils for serving Don’t taste food with finger Report any illness to management, avoid handling food Healthy workers, hair washing, bathing, with frequent hand washing
    38 : Serving Temperature of food out of danger zones Thermometers to check food temp steam tables 180 - 200 F to maintain 140 F food Sneeze guards and utensils for salad bar no dirty plates used for return trip Avoid touching food contact surfaces with hands Server trained in choke saving procedure
    39 : Cooling Problems here are #1 cause of food borne illness Rapid cooling important Chill to below 40 F Reduce food mass (divide into multiple containers) Shallow pre-chilled pans Use ice water bath for quick chill then refrigerate Stir to increase cooling Monitor temperature periodically Store in covered containers
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    41 : Sanitary Facilities & Equipment Cleaning & Sanitization Pest Control Inspections clean floors, no debris, clutter, mouse droppings no food storage on floor check cleanliness of dishes, utensils in storage check drawers for debris, cleanliness check cleanliness of all equipment used in food preparation or serving (slicers, soup kettles, dispensers
    42 :
    43 : Sanitary Facilities & Equipment Cleanliness of dishwasher temperature, detergent, scaling agents food debris inside machine, grooves on door washing arms free of obstruction Backflow prevention devices on plumbing Mop closets clean, mop head stored upright, replaced or washed frequently Facility surfaces and equipment sanitized and inspected on an ongoing basis
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    45 : Reheating Boil/heat to > 165 F within 2 hours of removal from refrigeration Never reheat more than once Never mix leftover and fresh food Discard leftovers refrigerated for more than a week from preparation date

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