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    Add as FriendGenetics for Epidemiologists Study Designs: Family-based Studies

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    1 : Genetics for EpidemiologistsStudy Designs: Family-based Studies Thomas A. Pearson, MD, PhD University of Rochester School of Medicine Visiting Scientist, NHGRI
    2 : Genetics for Epidemiologists:Study Designs: Family-based Studies Learning Objectives Introduce study designs to generate or test genomic hypotheses. Describe the major study designs which involve genetically related individuals. Provide examples of family-based designs from the literature. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of family-based designs in the study of gene-disease associations.
    3 : Identical Twins, 51 Year Old Males, with Myocardial Infarction* Characteristic EB AB Cigarette smoking 1 ppd 1 ppd LDL Cholesterol (mg/dl) 151 151 Blood pressure Normal Normal Diabetes None None Coronary Arteriography JHH HFH Coronary Dominance Left Left Right Coronary Lesions None None Left Ant. Descending Lesions None None Left Circumflex Lesions >90% stenosis >90% stenosis [Single lesion in OM branch] * Herrington DM, Pearson TA. Am J Cardiol 1987; 59: 366-7.
    4 : The Genetic Etiology of Disease Gene Variant Gene Expression Gene Product Altered Physiology Phenotype (Disease)
    5 : Hierarchy of Questions Regarding a Genetic Etiology of a Disease Does it aggregate in families? Is it inherited from parent to offspring? Which chromosomes carry the gene(s)? Which gene(s) are associated with it? Which gene variant(s) are associated with it? What gene products are altered as a potential direct or indirect cause of it?
    6 : Candidate Gene Approaches(Hypothesis-driven) Twin Linkage Other Family- Studies Analysis based Designs Candidate Genes Disease vs. No Disease Replication
    7 : Genome-wide Association(Agnostic) Entire Genome Disease vs. No Disease Replication
    8 : Familial Aggregation?Family History as an Independent Risk Factor Definition of a positive family history Self-reported vs. verified Specific definitional elements Age of onset of disease Degree of relatedness of affected relatives (1st, 2nd, 3rd degrees) Number of relatives affected Family information bias: The flow of family information about exposures or illnesses may be stimulated by, or directed to, a new case in its midst . (Sackett D. J Chron. Dis. 1979; 32: 51-63) Relative risk ratio: A measure of the strength of familial aggregation: Prevalence of disease in Relative Risk Ratio (?) = relatives of affected persons Prevalence of disease in the general population
    9 : Risk Ratios for Siblings of Probands with Complex Diseases with Familial Aggregation* Disease ? Schizophrenia 12 Autism 150 Bipolar Disorder 7 Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 35 Crohn Disease 25 Multiple Sclerosis 24 * Nussbaum et al: Thompson and Thompson’s Genetics in Medicine, 2007, p 153.
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    11 : Studies of Familial Aggregation of Disease in Siblings Twins Monozygous (MZ) twins (0.3% of births) Dizygous (DZ) twins (0.2-1.0% of births) Twins reared apart Twins adopted and raised by unrelated foster parents Siblings
    12 : Measures of Degree of Genetic Contribution to Disease in Family Studies Qualitative traits or diseases Concordance Quantitative traits Correlation Heritability
    13 : Concordance Calculated as the number of twin-pairs with disease amongst those twin-pairs with at least one affected twin (Gordis): #twins with both affected # twins with both affected + # twins with only one affected Concordance < 100% in MZ twins is evidence for nongenetic etiological factors. Concordance in MZ twins > DZ twins is evidence for genetic etiological factors.
    14 : Concordance Rates for Parkinson’s Disease in Twin Pairs * Number Concordant Pairs Types of Pairs of Pairs Number % All twin pairs Monozygous 71 11 15.5 Dizygous 90 10 11.1 Onset <50 years Monozygous 4 4 100.0 Dizygous 12 2 16.7 Onset >50 years Monozygous 65 7 10.8 Dizygous 76 8 10.5 *Tanner CH et al. JAMA 1999; 281: 341-346 as cited in Gordis, 2004
    15 : Concordance Rates in MZ and DZ Twins* Concordance (%) Disorder MZ DZ Nontraumatic epilepsy 70.0 6 Multiple sclerosis 17.8 2 Schizophrenia 40 4.8 Bipolar disorder 62 8 Osteoarthritis 32 16 Rheumatoid arthritis 12.3 3.5 Psoriasis 72 15 Cleft lip 30 2 Systemic lupus erythematosus 22 0 Nussbaum et al. Thompson and Thompson’s Genetics in Medicine, 2007
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    17 : Measures of Degree of Genetic Contribution to Disease in Family Studies Qualitative traits or diseases Concordance Quantitative traits Correlation Heritability
    18 : Correlation Among Relatives for Systolic Blood Pressure* Relatives Compared Correlation (r) Monozygotic twins 0.55 Dizygotic twins 0.25 Siblings 0.18 Parents and offspring 0.34 Spouses 0.07 * Feinlieb M et al as cited in Gordis, 2007
    19 : Heritability (h2) Defined as the fraction of total phenotypic variance of a quantitative trait that is caused by genes. Calculated from twin studies: h2 = Variance in DZ pairs-Variance in MZ pairs Variance in DZ pairs Varies from 0.0 (no heritability) to 1.0 (strong heritability); >.7 or .8 suggest strong influence of heredity on trait.
    20 : Limitations of Twin Studies Environmental exposures may not be identical even in MZ twins. MZ twins can have different gene expressions. The risk of the genotype may be heterogeneous between twin pairs. Ascertainment bias: Co-twin with disease is more likely to participate in twin studies as compared to unaffected co-twin.
    21 : Linkage Analysis: Family-based Approach to Identification of Susceptibility Genes Linkage: the tendency for alleles at loci that are close together to be transmitted together as an intact unit (haplotype). Recombinant fraction (T) varies 0.0-0.5: 0.0 = tightly linked, no recombination 0.5 = unlinked, independently assorting Map distance in centimorgans: genetic length over which one recombinant cross-over will occur in 1% of meioses.
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    24 : Determination of Linkage in Family Studies Assume a mode of Mendelian inheritance. Identify markers with known positions to serve as references. In families, determine the number of 1st degree relatives who show recombination assuming various values of ? (0.0 to 0.5). Calculate ratio of liklihood of observing the family data for values of ? to the likelihood of observing the family data if the loci were unlinked (? = 0.5).
    25 : LOD Score (Z= Logarithm of Odds) Z = Likelihood of the data if loci linked at a particular ? Likelihood of the data if loci are unlinked (? = 0.5) Best estimate of ?, the recombinant frequency between a marker locus and the disease locus. Magnitude of Z assesses strength of likelihood of linkage (LOD>3 is 1000/1 odds that loci are linked). LOD scores can be added across families.
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    27 : Trios: Study Design of Affected Offspring and Both Parents Phenotypic assessment only in affected offspring. Genotyping in both parents and affected offspring. Used in both discovery and replication GWAS. Advantage: Not susceptible to population stratification due to sampling of cases and controls from populations of different ancestries.
    28 : Parents and Offspring: Transmission Disequilibrium Testing (TDT) Tests whether an allele at given locus (linked to disease or trait) transmitted to affected offspring by parents more frequently than expected by chance. Heterozygous parents transmit alleles m1 and m2 at given locus with equal frequency (50%); affected offspring should receive disease-associated allele more frequently. Obviates need for control group.
    29 : TDT in Type I Diabetes: Excess Transmission of D18s487 Allele 4(Merriman T et al. Hum. Molec. Genet 1997; 6;1003-1010)
    30 : Comparison of GWAS Studies Using Case-Control and Trio Designs to Identify Associations Between Three SNP’s and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus* *Hakonarson H, et al. Nature 2007; July 15
    31 : Limitations of Trios Difficult to assemble trios if late onset of disease in affected child. Sensitive to small degrees of genotyping errors which can distort transmission proportions between parents and offspring (Mitchell AA et al. J Hum Genet 2003; 72: 598-610) Example in GWAS of schizophrenia (Kirov G et al: Molec Psych 2008; 1-8).
    32 : Other Issues in Family-based Designs GWAS of Affected/Unaffected sibling comparisons (Maraganore DM et al. Am J Hum Genet 2005; 77:685-693) Attribution of heritability or genetic risk. 1.Multivariate adjustment of disease association for susceptibility SNPs to determine if risk can be accounted for: Y = ß0 + ß1(+FH) + ß2(SNP1) + ß3(SNP2) + etc. 2. Multiple adjustment for intermediary risk factors to identify excess risk in first degree relatives (Framingham Heart Study).
    33 : Does the Framingham Risk Score Predict Risk in Siblings of Early Premature Coronary Patients? 784 sibs (30-59 yrs.) of 449 pts. With CAD with onset <60yrs. Ten year follow-up for incident CAD events. Ten year risk from FRS calculated at baseline. Excess risk in men (66.6%) and in women (12.7%). Vaidya D et al, AJC 2007; 100: 1410-1415
    34 : Conclusions Family-based studies have been the cornerstone of identification and quantification of the familial risk and heritability of human diseases. Linkage analysis identifies the location of genes relative to known markers and the alleles within a haplotype in linkage disequilibrium. Trios provide a family-based design for candidate genes or for discovery or replication GWAS.

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