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    Add as FriendHistory of Forensic Medicine

    by: Dr.Santanu Mandal

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    1 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal H I S T O R Y o f FO R E N S IC ME D I C I N E Speaker- Dr. Santanu Mandal. Department of Forensic Medicine.
    2 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal INTRODUCTION We can never be fully in possession of a science until we know the history of its development. The History is the Key to the past, explanation of present & signpost of Future.
    3 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal Objectives To know the history of Forensic Medicine in different countries. To know the milestones in the history of Forensic Medicine.
    4 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal The word “Forensic” came from Latin “Forensis” which means--- “The Forum” or “The market Place”. In Rome,“Forum” was the meeting place where civic & Legal matters were discussed by those with public responsibility. History behind the name -“Forensic Medicine”
    5 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal Origin & Development of Forensic Medicine in Different Countries
    6 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal EGYPT The Egyptians were well-versed in the art of preservation of dead bodies, by mummifying them artificially. 3400 BC - Earliest known Egyptian mummy, nicknamed ‘Ginger' for its hair color, found in cemetery at Gebelein, Egypt.
    7 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal EGYPT 2900 BC – IMHOTEP- Grand vizir, Chief Justice and Physician to King Zoser of Egypt. He is considered by many as the first medico-legal expert. He wrote a medical treatise remarkable for being devoid of magical thinking, containing anatomical observations, ailments, and cures .
    8 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal BABYLON 2200 BC – HAMMURABI – King of Babylon formulated oldest known law code:- Code of Hammurabi Code of Hammurabi includes details of regulations of doctors & their practice.
    9 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal GREECE 460 - 370BC – Hippocrates Hippocratic oath tells about Medical Laws & Ethics of Physicians. 384 – 322 BC -Aristotle He fixed animation of fetus at 40 day after conception & also proposed a law to prevent rearing deformed children by limiting age of procreation in men is 70 & of conception in women is 50
    10 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal ROME 753–673 BC– Numa Pompilious ordered that bodies of all women dying during confinement should be immediately opened to save child’s life. 138-78 BC-: Lex Cornelia of Sulla, states that 5 midwives should prove the pregnancy.
    11 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal ROME 44 BC - Roman physician “Antistius” examined body of Julius Caesar & found 23 stab wounds over his body. AD 23 – 79 :- Pliny the Elder - wrote about suspended animation, superfoetation, sudden natural death, sign of maturity in fetus,& age of menopause. He wrote men’s corpses in water float on their backs but women’s face downwards.
    12 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal ROME AD 483 – 565 -: Emperor Justinian DIGEST [Justinian Code] states --- “physicians are not ordinary witnesses but they give judgment rather than testimony”
    13 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal CHINA 1248 AD – Chinese doctor Hsu Chichtsi wrote :- Hsi Yüan Lu [Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified ] Contents are mainly the instructions to coroners. Discusses the problem of whether dead bodies found in water is antemortem or postmortem drowning & also whether a body was burned before or after death. First document of using medicine & entomology to solve a murder case.
    14 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal ITALY 1302 AD- Bartholomeo Devarignana of Bologna– done 1st Medicolegal autopsy. [Black Azzolino Case---It was a case of suspected poisoning.] 1557 AD- Paulus Zacchias(1584-1659) published “Quaestiones medico-legales”. He is considered as Father of Legal Medicine as well as Father of Forensic Psychiatry. 1602 AD- Dr. Fortunato Fedele of Sicily- Published 1st book on Forensic Medicine. [De relationibus medicorum libri quatuor]
    15 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal FRANCE 1545 AD--Ambroise Paré, French Barber Surgron in army. -Published his first book “The method of curing wounds caused by arquebus and firearms” in 1545 -He wrote, Reports in Court, a procedure on the writing of legal reports in relation to injury. He is considered by many to be the ‘Father of Forensic Pathology’.
    16 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal FRANCE Auguste Ambroise Tardieu (1818 –1879 AD) Subpleural spots of ecchymosis, that follow the death of a newborn child by strangulation or suffocation, were first described by Tardieu in 1859, and were so named in his honor— “Tardieu’s spots”
    17 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal GERMANY 150 AD -Galen described difference between lung tissue before & after birth. 1532 AD – Emperor Charles 5th declared-- “Constitutio Criminalis Carolina” In case of Injury to a person, infanticide, suicide, procured abortion, concealed & pretended pregnancy, medical malpractice, poison simulated diseases, murder, medical malpractice, opening of dead bodies are allowed for legal investigation.
    18 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal GERMANY 1689 AD- Johannes Bohr distinguished antemotem – postmortem wound. 1782 AD- 1st Medicolegal Journal published at Berlin by Uden & Pyl. “Magazine fur die Gerichtliche Arzeneikundeund Medicinische Polizei” [Pharmacology and Medical Journal for the Judicial Police] 1796-1864 AD- Johann Lugwig Casper, Published “Forensic Dissection” in 1850 & “Practical Manual of Forensic Medicine” in 1856. These books contain some colourful lithographic plates.
    19 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES Lungs of dead children: stillborn, newborn who have taken a breath, newborn whose lungs have been artificially inflated
    20 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES Rope ligature marks and upper thigh injury marks
    21 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES The stomach of a 50-year-old man, who died due to tuberculosis of the lung
    22 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal CASPER'S LITHOGRAPHIC PLATES Bloodstain, blisters, bullet injury holes.
    23 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal GERMANY 1787-1853 AD - Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila, Spanish born French toxicologist & chemist. Orfila created new techniques and refined existing techniques in his treatise, “Traité des poisons” greatly enhancing test’s accuracy especially in case of Arsenic poisoning [1840,Marie La Farge case]. He is known as Father of Modern Forensic Toxicology.
    24 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal GREAT BRITAIN 1788 AD- Samuel Farr wrote 1st book on medical jurisprudence in English, published in London. [Elements of Medical Jurisprudence] 1836 AD- 2 acts passed due to the effect of West Port Murders case in 1828. - Birth & Death Registrations act. -Act to provide attendance & remunerations of Medical Witness at coroner’s inquest. 1843 AD- McNaughten rules enacted.
    25 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal AMERICA 1647 AD- General Court of Mssachusetts Bay— Autorised to hold an autopsy every 4 years for the benefit of medical students, the subject being a criminal. 1877 AD- Boston Coroner system replaced by Medical Examiner system.
    26 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal History of Forensic Medicine in INDIAN SCENARIO.
    27 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal Ancient India 3102 BC – Code of Manu –: “Manu-Samhita” The drunk, insane, hungry and thirsty, & people with defective sense organs were not permitted to be witnesses in court. 2000-1000 BC- Vedic age-[Rig Veda]:- Marriage between brother & sister was prohibited, only persons having knowledge were allowed to treat patients.
    28 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal Ancient India 700 BC – “Agnivesa Charaka Samhita” An elaborate code for training, duties, privilege & social status of physician. Has a detailed descriptions of various poisons, their sign-symptoms & treatment. 400-300 BC- “Arthasasthra” by Kautilya, the prime advisor of Chandragupta Maurya.
    29 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal Ancient India “Arthasasthra” gives a list of Forensic evidence for establishing cause of death. Also states that no one can practice medicine without permission of King. 200-300 AD- ‘Shusruta’- Father of Indian Surgery Shusruta samhita classify poison in 3 groups - plant / animal /artificial poison.
    30 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal British India 1678 AD- 1st Death Certificate issued by John Waldo & Bezaliel Sherman in Madrus. [Death of soldier Thomas Savage] 1693 AD- 1st Medical certificate issued by Edward Bulkley & Samuel Browne. [Patient John Nicks, 16/08/1693] 1693 AD- 1st Medical Autopsy done by Edward Bulkley. [Death of Mr. Wheeler on 28/08/1693]
    31 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal British India 1695 AD- 1st Wound certificate by Edward Bulkley. [ Lieutenant Seaton, 09/08/1695] 1845 AD- Calcutta Medical College started 1st Chair of Professor of Medical Jurisprudence. [Dr. C.T.O.Woodford- 1st Professor] 1858 AD- Sir Willium Herschel introduced Dactylography as an identification tool first time in India.
    32 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal British India 1861 AD- police inquest introduced in India. 1871 AD- Coroner’s inquest started in presidency towns of Bombay & Calcutta. 1897 AD- 1st Finger print Bureau was established in Calcutta. 1900 AD- Major J L Vangeyzel states that white arsenic is most commonly used poison in India in cases of homicide poisoning.
    33 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal Milestones in History of Forensic Medicine
    34 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal MILESTONES 1847 – 1st Code of Medical Ethics was adopted by American Medical Association in Philadelphia 1882 – Alphonse Bertillon, a French police officer [Father of Forensic Medicine] 1st system of anthropometric identification. 1892 - Francois Galton English Anthropometrist introduced Systemic fingerprint identification records.
    35 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal MILESTONES 1921 –John Larson in Berkeley, USA, invented polygraph 1929 – 1st forensic medicine laboratory was established in Chicago 1930 – EDMOND LOCARD known as Sherlock Holmes of France, stated “The exchange of materials between two objects occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another”
    36 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal MILESTONES 1958 --The term ‘Psychological autopsy’ was coined by Edwin Shneidman, Norman Earberow, and Robert Litman, directors of the Los Angeles suicide prevention center (LASPC) The “psychological autopsy” is a –: “procedure for investigating a person’s death by reconstructing what the person thought, felt and did preceding his or her death” This reconstruction is based upon information gathered from personal documents, police reports, medical and coroner’s records and face to face interview with families, friends and others who had contact with the person before the death.
    37 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal 1962 – Dr. Thomas Noguchi ( known as Coroner of the stars) done the Psychological Autopsy of Marylene Monroe.
    38 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal MILESTONES 1985 – Prof Alec Jeffrey, Leicester University DNA fingerprinting. 2001 – Lawrence Farwell – Brain fingerprinting in USA [ Basic process is :- EEG] 2005 – Started Virtopsy project, by Prof. Richard Dirnhofer of the Institutes of Forensic Medicine, Diagnostic Radiology & Neuroradiology at the University of Bern, Switzerland.
    39 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal CONCLUSION Medicine & Law have intermingled from the earliest era and the bonds were religion, superstition & magic. Science being incompetent to help in those times, so, -Law adopted miracles as explanation, -Superstition as proof, & -Confession as admission of guilt. As the wheel of time rotates, thought process becomes more clear and more scientific approaches take upper hand.
    40 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal REFERENCES:- Modi’s Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology. 23rd Edition,2006. The Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology; by Dr. K.S. Narayan. Reddy, 31st Edition,2012. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology; by Prof.J.B.Mukherjee,2nd edition,1994. Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology-Principles and Practice; by Dr. Krishan Vij,5th edition 2011. Website, accessed on 2nd March 2013.
    41 : By.Dr.Santanu Mandal Thank you ..

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