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    Add as FriendHistory of Microbiology

    by: Rajesh

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    6 : PAINTED BY S. UCHII, 2003 First to record possible routes to life. He saw beings as arising in one of three ways, from sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction or nonliving matter. Observable that aphids arise from the dew on plants, fleas from putrid matter, and mice from dirty hay This belief remained unchallenged for more than two thousand years. Aristotle (384-322 BC)
    7 : The Romans - Used a magnifying lens called “Flea glasses” Zacharias Janssen Invented first compound microscope
    8 : Improved the Microscope Improved the Telescope THE FIRST MICROSCOPE Robert Hooke coined the term “CELL”
    9 : Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Major contributions to the development of microbiology was after the invention of the microscope by Anton von Leuwenhoek and the implementation of the scientific method. A hobbyist microscopist Dutchman Improved the simple microscope to a magnification of 270X First to observe and describe microorganisms accurately Composed of one lens Light shines objects at a 45° angle Worked like a dark field microscope Magnification: 50-300 fold Bright microorganisms could be seen in a dark back ground
    10 : Reported to the Royal Society of London (1673) Accurate shape, detailed movement Subjects were most possibly bacteria and protozoa and called them “Animalcules“ Also reported spermatozoa, blood cells Leeuwenhoek’s Observations
    11 : The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter is called SPONTANEOUS GENERATION (ABIOGENESIS). According to spontaneous generation, a “vital force’ Forms life. The alternative hypothesis, that the living organisms arise from preexisting life, is called BIOGENESIS. The debate over spontaneous generation
    12 : Jan Baptista Van Helmont (1580-1644) Discovered CARBON DIOXIDE, introduced the term gas in its present scientific sense Reported in late 1500’s that barley grains and old shirts left in a corner would spontaneously give rise to mice Claimed as evidence that supported SPONTANEOUS GENERATION OR ABIOGENESIS
    13 : Francisco Redi (1626-1697) Opposed spontaneous Generation Open container Flies were observed egg laid on Meat & Maggots Developed on meat Closed container Flies were observed egg laid on the Net Maggots Developed on net Closed container No Maggots Developed Hypothesis: Maggots come from flies. REDI’S EXPERIMENT
    14 : John Neetham (1713-1781) supported spontaneous Generation Conclusion: Organic matter had vital force that confers properties of life to non-living matter BUT: He had left the flasks unsealed after bioling
    15 : Lazaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) supported spontaneous Generation Air carries germs to broth and boiling kills the existing ones Compounds essential with the generation of life were destroyed by heating!! Ealing prevents air that is necessary for spontaneous generation
    16 : THEODORE SCHWANN (1810–1882) allowed air to enter a flask containing a sterile nutrient solution after the air had passed through a red-hot tube. The flask remained sterile. GEORG FRIEDRICH SCHRODER and THEODOR VON DUSCH allowed air to enter a flask of heat-sterilized medium after it had passed through sterile cotton wool. No growth occurred in the medium even though the air had not been heated. THE FRENCH NATURALIST FELIX POUCHET claimed in 1859 to have carried out experiments conclusively proving that microbial growth could occur without air contamination. Other supporters of biogenesis
    17 : Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Disproved spontaneous generation Pasteur's Swan neck flasks could supply air but could also trap ambient germs from entering broth Father of Modern Microbiology
    18 : Ambient germs are necessary for promoting growth Principle of sterility and aseptic work is important Pasteur Refutes the Spontaneous Generation
    19 : Other Contributions of Louis Pasteur Worked on souring of wine and beer and found that this alcohol spoilage is due to the growth of undesirable organisms Showed that desirable microorganisms produce alcohol by a chemical process called “Fermentation” Showed that wine did not spoil, if it is heated to 50-60°C for a few minutes. Method is called “Pasteurization”. Founder of “Germ theory of disease” as he visualized that diseases are caused by microorganisms
    20 : Discovered the importance of sterilization and discovered steam steri-lizer, autoclave and hot air oven. Established the importance of cotton wool plugs for protection of culture media from aerial contamination. He differentiated between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and coined the term “anaerobic”. Worked on “Pebrine”, a silk-worm disease caused by a protozoan and showed that infection can be controlled by choosing worms free from the parasite for breeding. Other Contributions of Louis Pasteur (Contd…)
    21 : Developed the process of “attenuation” during his work on “chicken cholera” (Old culture looses it character) Developed a live attenuated anthrax vaccine, by incubation at 40-42°C, which proved to be useful in protecting animals against anthrax. Developed a vaccine against rabies (Hydrophobia)- obtained the causative agent of rabies by serial intracerebral passage in rabbits and the vaccine was prepared by drying pieces of spinal chord.) Other Contributions of Louis Pasteur (Contd…)
    22 : Louis Pasteur Vaccinating the Sheep
    23 : Introduced pure culture techniques by using agar agar (Sea Weads:Gelidium Sp.) Tubercle bacilli or its protein extract was injected into a Guinea-pig already infected with the bacillus, an exaggerated reaction took place and the reaction remain localized. “Koch Phenomenon” and it is a demonstration of cell mediated immunity. Robert Koch (1843-1910) Father of Practical Bacteriology Robert Koch first developed relationship between microorganisms and disease Discovered rod shaped organisms in the blood of animals, that died of anthrax. Developed Koch’s Postulates for testing relationship Introduced the staining techniques Discovered cause of tuberculosis (Koch’s Bacilli) Discovered the causes of Cholera
    24 : Koch’s Postulates
    25 : Edward Jenner (1749-1823) Discovered a safe and efficient vaccination against small pox (Variola).
    26 : Joseph Lister (1827-1912) Father of Antiseptic surgery Successfully prevented post-operative sepsis by introducing antiseptic techniques Used Phenol/Carboxyilic acid Revolutionized the science of surgery by introducing antiseptic system in 1867.
    27 : Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) Penicillin: The accidental Discovery An add for Penicillin, during II World War
    28 : Paul Erlich Worked in Koch’s Lab doing Differential Staining Speculated at a Chemical Might Selectively Target Specific Cells and Kill Them. Developed the Discipline of Chemotherapy, Discovered First Antibiotics for Syphilis
    29 : Fannie Eilshemius (1850–1934) Walther Hesse (1846–1911) First proposed using agar in culture media. Polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of a red algae (Rhodophyta) A polysaccharide polymer that contains 3,6-anhydrogalactose, 2-O-methyl-a-l-galactopyranose and 6-O-methyl agarobiose Solid at >37oC. Melts at 100oC. Not digested by most bacteria
    30 : Pure Culture on Solid Media
    31 : Elie Metchnikoff (1845-1916) Discovered White Blood Cells & phagocytosis: Began field of immunology
    32 : EMILE Von Behiring Invented diphtheria antitoxin
    33 : Rebecca Lancefield Developed Streptococci Classification
    34 : 1901 Behring Diphtheria antitoxin 1902 Ross Malaria transmission 1905 Koch TB bacterium 1908 Metchnikoff Phagocytosis 1945 Fleming, Chain, Florey Penicillin 1969 Delbruck, Hershey Viral replication 1987 Tohegawa Antibody genetics 1997 Prusiner Prions SELECTED NOBEL PRIZES IN PHYSIOLOGY
    35 : Agricultural microbiology Aquatic microbiology Food Microbiology Industrial microbiology Medical microbiology Space microbiology Environmental microbiology Technological advances have resulted in the development of studies in
    36 : Any Questions ?

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