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    Add as FriendHousing and Health

    by: Mohit

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    1 : HOUSING & HEALTH
    2 : INTRODUCTION- WHAT IS HOUSING? All places in which a group of people reside and pursue their life goals It includes not only the ‘physical structure’ providing shelter, but also the immediate surroundings, and the related community services and facilities
    3 : IMPACT OF HOUSING ON HEALTH Where individuals live is strongly related to their health Difficult to isolate specific factors as housing is strongly linked with income, employment and other social circumstances A strong relationship can be established between poor housing and various health disorders
    4 : SOCIAL GOALS OF HOUSING Shelter Economic stability Family Life Access to community facilities Family participation in community life
    5 : HOW CAN EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL GOALS IN HOUSING BE ACHIEVED? Introduction of social housing schemes Establishment of both minimum and maximum standards Creation of financial and fiscal institutions geared to helping low income people obtain credit for building or improving their houses
    6 : CRITERIA FOR HEALTHFUL HOUSING Provides physical protection and shelter
    7 : CRITERIA FOR HEALTHFUL HOUSING Provides adequately for cooking, eating, washing and excretory functions
    8 : CRITERIA FOR HEALTHFUL HOUSING Is designed, constructed, maintained and used in a manner such as to prevent the spread of communicable diseases
    9 : CRITERIA FOR HEALTHFUL HOUSING Provides for protection from hazards of exposure to noise and pollution
    10 : CRITERIA FOR HEALTHFUL HOUSING Is free from unsafe physical arrangements due to construction or maintenance, and from toxic or harmful materials
    11 : CRITERIA FOR HEALTHFUL HOUSING Encourages personal and community development, promotes social relationships Reflects a regard for ecological principles, and by these means promotes mental health
    12 : WHY DO WE NEED HOUSING STANDARDS? HOUSING STANDARDS
    13 : The primary objective of this Health Standard is to protect and promote the health and well being of occupants of housing premises and of those who may reside in the immediate vicinity of such premises. To establish minimum conditions which are essential to good health and which make housing premises safe, sanitary and fit for human habitation.
    14 : Health Standards Requirements:- These are summarised as follows:- Housing Premises:- The housing premises must be structurally sound and must be maintained in a waterproof, windproof and weatherproof condition.
    15 : Equipment and Furnishings:- Occupants of a housing premises must be supplied with adequate heat, potable water; sanitary facilities, cooking facilities and adequate space for sleeping. Sanitation:- Housing premises must be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.
    16 : Site For Urban area:- The site should be elevated from its surroundings. The site should have an independent access to a street of adequate width. It should be away from the breeding places. It should be away from nuisances.
    17 : The soil should be dry and safe for founding the structure and should be well drained .The subsoil water should be below 10 feet. It should be pleasing surroundings. For Rural Areas:- Same as urban houses.
    18 : Setback Open space all around the house for proper lighting and ventilation, is called setback. For Rural area:- It is recommended that the built up area should not be exceed 1/3rd of the total area. For Urban areas:- The built up area may be up to 2/3rd.
    19 : Floor For Urban area:- The floor should be pucca and satisfy the following criteria :- It should be impermeable so that it can be easily washable. The floor must be smooth. The floor must be damp-proof.
    20 : The height of the plinth should be 2-3 feet. Floor area of a living room should be atleast 10 sq. m. For occupancy by more than one person an atleast 12 sq. m. For rural area:- Same as the urban areas.
    21 : Walls For urban areas:- The wall should be – Reasonably strong & smooth Should have low heat capacity. Weather resistant. Unsuitable for harbourage of rats and vermin. Not easily damaged. For Rural areas:- Same as urban
    22 : Roof For urban areas:- The height of the roof should not be less than 10 feet. The roof should have a low heat transmittance coefficient. For rural areas:- Same as urban area.
    23 : Rooms The number of the living rooms should not be less than two. For urban areas:- 8 - 9 sq. m. area per persons. For Rural area:- 4-5 sq. m. area per persons.
    24 : Cubic Space Atleast 500 c.ft. per capita, preferably 1000 c.ft. for both urban and rural areas.
    25 : Windows And Doors For urban areas it should be 20% of floor area. For rural areas it should be 10% of floor area.
    26 : Lighting Factor The daylight factor should exceed 1% over half the floor area in both urban and rural area.
    27 : Kitchen The kitchen should be separate in both urban and rural areas. Characteristics of kitchen:- It must be protected against dust and smoke Adequately lighted Provided with arrangements for storing food, fuel and provisions. Arrangements for proper drainage.
    28 : Rural Kitchen Urban Kitchen
    29 : Water supply For urban areas 150 – 180 liters per person per day For rural 40 – 50 liters per person per day.
    30 : Solid Waste Disposal Storing facility and daily disposal in both rural and urban areas.
    31 : Excreta Disposal In urban areas sanitary latrine is preferred. In rural area sanitary latrine and bio gas are preferable.
    32 : Bathing And Washing The house should have facilities for bathing and washing belonging exclusively to it providing proper privacy.
    33 : Where you live matters to your health and wellbeing It’s not as important as income, work or marriage but: Multiple housing problems damage health as much as smoking. Housing deprivation early in life increases the risk of health problems in adulthood.
    34 : If you’re employed and well paid you’ll avoid unhealthy housing, which is left for others. Many housing improvements are likely to create savings for NHS and social care budgets. Where you live matters more if you’re workless, low paid, very young or disabled.
    35 : SOME IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR HEALTHY HOUSING: Location Safety and security aspects Sanitation Comfortable house life 5. Good neighborhood and community relations.
    36 : Risked Group Potentially, everyone is at risk from the affects of unhealthy homes. However, young children and elderly people are mostly effected.  The persons suffering from chronic health diseases and respiratory problems are the majorly affected here.
    37 : RELATIONSHIP OF HOUSING WITH HEALTH: As we spend so much time in our homes, the quality of our residential environment is a serious concern. Linking housing improvement to health has been the subject of a number of studies. However for certain housing conditions, there is a correlation between poor housing and ill health:
    38 : EFFECTS OF POOR HOUSING Respiratory infections : common cold , tuberculosis , influenza , bronchitis , whooping cough, streptococcal infections, gastrointestinal illnesses.
    39 : SKIN INFECTIONS
    40 : RAT INFESTATION: ARTHROPODS: Mosquitoes,houseflies,fleas and bugs Plague
    41 : Accidents: substantial proportion of house accidents are caused by some defect in the home and its environment. Speeding causes accidents, discourages walking and cycling, and impairs quality of life. Older people are vulnerable to stress from speeding traffic.
    42 : Fuel Poverty & Affordable Warmth After several years of progress, fuel poverty is now increasing. Energy efficiency and fuel prices are important but most progress has been made by raising incomes among low income groups
    43 : Morbidity and mortality: High morbidity and mortality rates are observed where housing conditions are substandard. Psychosocial effects: The sense of isolation felt by persons living in the upper floors of high buildings is now well known to have harmful effects.
    44 : People also living in densely populated urban areas feel a similar sense of isolation which may lead to neurosis and behavioural disorders. Depressed mental health. Less physical activity and more smoking. Noise.
    45 : What are the impacts of housing on health and wellbeing? Homelessness: Overcrowding: Increased risk of infectious or respiratory disease. Possible link with stomach cancer. Reduced stature. BME households particularly at risk. • Homeless people have greater difficulty in accessing health services. • The mental health of homeless children is also very poor.
    46 : Defects such as damp and draughts. Cold. Indoor pollutants and infestation. Housing form – stairs, narrow doorways, inaccessible toilets and bathrooms Relative location. Neighbourhood condition – ‘liveability’.
    47 : Positive Effects Housing improvements may lead to small improvements in physical health and general well being. Programmes of regeneration and housing improvement are likely to be accompanied by other changes to the community. The likely positive effects of regeneration programmes include improved feelings of safety, enhanced levels of area and housing satisfaction and increased community involvement.
    48 : Housing does not operate in isolation to deliver benefits and other service providers also have a role to play. While physical housing conditions influence health, the wider neighbourhood context including factors such as unemployment, educational attainment etc, may well be of greater importance in determining health. CONCLUSION
    49 : The impact of housing on health is influenced by social and economic circumstances and neighbourhood factors which may well change during improvement programmes. These changes can indirectly affect health positively or negatively.
    50 :
    51 : “Overcrowding refers to the situation in which more people are living within a single dwelling than there is space for, so that movement is restricted, privacy secluded, hygiene impossible, rest and sleep difficult”.
    52 : Overcrowding is considered to exist if 2 persons over 9 years of age, not husband and wife, of opposite sex are obliged to sleep in the same room. The risks as physical health are clear enough, infectious disease spread rapidly under conditions of overcrowding.
    53 : People in overcrowded place suffer most of the times either from ; Depression Lack of sleep Frustration
    54 : Children are said to be more affected. It is a psychosocial stress, leading to unhappiness and very probably to psychosomatic and mental disorder.
    55 : Overcrowding is a health problem in human dwelling. It may promote the spread of respiratory infections such as tuberculosis, influenza, and diphtheria.
    56 : Lack of ventilation : Most of the overcrowded houses are poorly ventilated. The rooms are windowless. The indoor atmosphere of most of these houses is polluted. Burning of fossil fuels, indoor smoking, dusting of carpets, use of aerosols, and floor waxes are responsible for pollution.
    57 : High morbidity and mortality rates are observed where housing conditions are substandard. The accepted standards with respect to overcrowding are as below ; 1 room --- 2 persons 2 rooms --- 3 persons 3 rooms --- 5 persons 4 rooms --- 7 persons 5 or more rooms --- 10 persons.
    58 : Floor space : The accepted standards are ; 110 sq. ft. ( 11 sq. m.) or more ---- 2 persons 90 - 100 sq. ft. ( 9 - 10 sq. m.) ---- 1 ½ persons 70 - 90 sq. ft. ( 7 – 9 sq. m. ) ---- 1 person 50 - 70 sq. ft. ( 5 – 7 sq. m. ) ---- ½ person Under 50 sq. ft. ( 5 sq. m.) ---- nil { A baby under 12 months is not counted and children between 1 to 10 years are counted as half an unit }
    59 :
    60 : Indicators of housing are classified as-
    61 : These are based on floor space, cubic space, room heights, persons per room, rooms per dwelling, environmental quality (e.g. air, light, water, noise, sewage disposal, etc )
    62 : These are cost of building, rental levels, taxes, expenditure on housing, etc.
    63 : The following were proposed at an inter regional seminar on the Social Aspects of Housing, organized by the UN in 1975. Indicators related to prevention of illness : Frequency of illness due to inadequate sewage and garbage collection.
    64 : Frequency of illness associated with contaminated water source. Frequency of insect borne diseases
    65 : Frequency of illness due to overcrowding. Frequency of accidents due to overcrowding
    66 : Frequency of illness due to proximity to animals. Access to medical facility.
    67 : Indicators related to comfort : Thermal comfort. Acoustic comfort.
    68 : iii. Visual comfort. iv. Spatial comfort.
    69 : Indicators related to mental health and social well-being. Frequency of suicides in the neighbourhood. Neglected and abandoned youth in the neighbourhood.
    70 : Poor living conditions also have indirect effects on mental and social health, resulting in more school dropouts, drug abuse, crimes, alcohol consumption and other antisocial acts.

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