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    Add as FriendHuman Computer Interaction

    by: sunil

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    1 : Human Computer Interaction Introduction to Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
    2 : What is interaction design? Designing interactive products to support people in their everyday and working lives Sharp, Rogers and Preece (2002) The design of spaces for human communication and interaction Winograd (1997) The why and how of our daily interaction with computers Thackara (2001)
    3 : Goals of interaction design Develop usable products Usability means easy to learn, effective to use and provide an enjoyable experience Involve users in the design process
    4 : Introduction to Human Computer Interaction Design How many interactive products are there in everyday use? How many are actually usable? Give a few example of interactive products which are not usable. Why do you think these things happen time and time again? Can anything be done about it?
    5 : The main reason Interactive devices like web copier, online cinema ticket selling, photocopying, setting the alarm in an alarm clock… Have not been designed with the users in mind. From engineer’s perspective only. Interaction Design is to redress this concern by bringing usability into the design process: which means developing interactive products that are easy, effective and enjoyable to use from the users’ perspective,
    6 : Example of bad and good design Elevator controls and labels on the bottom row all look the same, so it is easy to push a label by mistake instead of a control button People do not make same mistake for the labels and buttons on the top row. Why not? From:
    7 : Why is this vending machine so bad? Need to push button first to activate reader Normally insert bill first before making selection Violation of well known convention, generally accepted standard From:
    8 : Case study 1. Voice Mail System in a hotel: You are staying in a hotel, left your mobile phone at home, forced to rely on the hotel facilities. The hotel has a voice mail system for each room. To find out if you have a message, you pick up the handset, if it goes ‘beep beep beep’ means there is a message. You want to access the message, so you read the instructions next to the phone: Touch 41, Touch *, your room number, # But it was not the same when you follow the instructions. What will you do? What are the problems of this Voice mail system?
    9 : Problems Infuriating Confusing Inefficient, too many steps for basic tasks Difficult to use Has no means of letting you know how many messages at a glance. You have to pick up the handset to find out and then go through a series of steps to listen to them Not obvious what to do: Instruction provided partially by the system and partially by card beside the phone.
    10 : Other examples A marble answering machine Marbles are use to represent messages Put the marble in a slot to play back the message Put the marble in another slot to dial back to caller Comment the differ of ‘marble’ answering machine from Voice Mail System?
    11 : Comments Uses familiar physical objects that shows how many messages at a glance Aesthetically pleasing and enjoyable to use Only needs one step actions to perform core tasks Simple but elegant design Less functionality and allow anyone to listen to any messages What are the problems of this machine?
    12 : Base on your experience, comment the following: A remote control device A mirror which display information when you are shaving
    13 : A success remote controller from TiVo Involve potential user at the initial design stage Get feedback on everything eg: Feel of device in hand Placement of batteries(easy replace, not fallout) ‘Buttonitis’ avoided- small button breeds, one for each function Only essential functions Other functions in menu options
    14 : What to design Need to take into account: Who the users are What activities are being carried out Where the interaction is taking place Need to optimise the interactions users have with a product Such that they match the users activities and needs //select the right i/o methods//
    15 : Examples For communication in distance? And what are the interfaces for user if it is in written or spoken form? Question: Think about what you can currently do using computer system? Now, think about interfaces and interactive devices.
    16 : Understanding users’ needs Need to take into account what people are good and bad at Consider what might help people in the way they currently do things //thinking through what might provide quality user experiences// Listen to what people want and get them involved Use tried and tested user-based methods
    17 : Activity How does making a call differ when using a: Cell phone Public phone box? Consider the kinds of user, type of activity and context of use
    18 : Comment User General public, Braille embossed, speaker volume control All users Activities Simple mode, insert card or money, if engaged, money returned, follow-on call button More complex Context Use in public or street, phone booths for privacy and noise protection Use anywhere, call waiting, various mode, ringtones
    19 : What is an interface? ?
    20 : Evolution of HCI ‘interfaces’ 50s - Interface at the hardware level for engineers - switch panels 60-70s - interface at the programming level - COBOL, FORTRAN 70-90s - Interface at the terminal level - command languages 80s - Interface at the interaction dialogue level - GUIs, multimedia 90s - Interface at the work setting - networked systems, groupware 00s - Interface becomes pervasive RF tags, Bluetooth technology, mobile devices, consumer electronics, interactive screens, embedded technology
    21 : From HCI to Interaction Design Human-computer interaction (HCI) is: “concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them” (ACM SIGCHI, 1992, p.6) Interaction design (ID) is: “the design of spaces for human communication and interaction” Winograd (1997) Increasingly, more application areas, more technologies and more issues to consider when designing ‘interfaces’
    22 : Terms emphasize different aspects of what is being designed User interface design Software design User-centered design Product design Web design Experience design Interactive system design //Interaction design cover all the above aspects//
    23 : How does interaction design differ from other approaches to the design of computer based system such as Software Engineering?
    24 : Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Interdisciplinary fields (e.g HCI, CSCW) Design practices (e.g. graphic design) Academic disciplines (e.g. computer science, psychology) Interaction Design
    25 : Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Academic disciplines contributing to ID: Psychology Social Sciences Computing Sciences Engineering Ergonomics Informatics
    26 : Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Design practices contributing to ID: Graphic design Product design Artist-design Industrial design Film industry
    27 : Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Interdisciplinary fields that ‘do’ interaction design: HCI Human Factors Cognitive Engineering Cognitive Ergonomics Computer Supported Co-operative Work Information Systems
    28 : How easy is it to work in multidisciplinary teams? More people involved in doing interaction design the more ideas and designs generated…but… The more difficult it can be to communicate and progress forwards the designs being created
    29 : Interaction design in business Increasing number of ID consultancies, examples of well known ones include: Nielsen Norman Group: “help companies enter the age of the consumer, designing human-centered products and services” Swim: “provides a wide range of design services, in each case targeted to address the product development needs at hand” IDEO: “creates products, services and environments for companies pioneering new ways to provide value to their customers”
    30 : What do professionals do in the ID business? interaction designers - people involved in the design of all the interactive aspects of a product usability engineers - people who focus on evaluating products, using usability methods and principles web designers - people who develop and create the visual design of websites, such as layouts information architects - people who come up with ideas of how to plan and structure interactive products user experience designers - people who do all the above but who may also carry out field studies to inform the design of products
    31 : Designer vs. Developer Designer: Understand how people act and react to events How they communicate and interact with each other Understand how emotions work Developer: Understand business side, technical, manufacturing and marketing
    32 : Advantage and disadvantage New ideas New methods More creative More original design Disadvantages: Cost, Communication (confusion, misunderstanding, communication breakdowns)
    33 : Activity Who do you think should be involved in Developing: A public kiosk providing information about the exhibits available in science museum? An interactive educational website to accompany a TV series?
    34 : What is involved in the process of interaction design Identify needs and establish requirements Develop alternative designs Build interactive prototypes that can be communicated and assessed Evaluate what is being built throughout the process
    35 : Core characteristics of interaction design users should be involved through the development of the project specific usability and user experience goals need to be identified, clearly documented and agreed at the beginning of the project iteration is needed through the core activities
    36 : Usability goals Effective to use – how good in doing its job Efficient to use – the way product support users in carrying out a task (marble answering machine) Safe to use – protecting user from dangerous (remote access) and undesirable situation. Have good utility – provides right kind of functions Easy to learn (learnability) Easy to remember how to use (memorability)
    37 : Passworditus ?
    38 : Activity on usability How long should it take and how long does it actually take to: use a VCR to play a video? use a VCR to pre-record two programs? use an authoring tool to create a website?
    39 : User experience goals Satisfying - rewarding Fun - support creativity Enjoyable - emotionally fulfilling Entertaining …and more Helpful Motivating Aesthetically pleasing
    40 : Usability and user experience goals How do usability goals differ from user experience goals? Are there trade-offs between the two kinds of goals? e.g. can a product be both fun and safe? How easy is it to measure usability versus user experience goals?
    41 : Design principles Generalizable abstractions for thinking about different aspects of design The do’s and don’ts of interaction design What to provide and what not to provide at the interface Derived from a mix of theory-based knowledge, experience and common-sense
    42 : Visibility • This is a control panel for an elevator. • How does it work? • Push a button for the floor you want? • Nothing happens. Push any other button? Still nothing. What do you need to do? It is not visible as to what to do! From:
    43 : Visibility …you need to insert your room card in the slot by the buttons to get the elevator to work! How would you make this action more visible? • make the card reader more obvious • provide an auditory message, that says what to do (which language?) • provide a big label next to the card reader that flashes when someone enters • make relevant parts visible • make what has to be done obvious
    44 : Feedback Sending information back to the user about what has been done Includes sound, highlighting, animation and combinations of these e.g. when screen button clicked on provides sound or red highlight feedback: “ccclichhk”
    45 : Constraints Restricting the possible actions that can be performed Helps prevent user from selecting incorrect options Three main types (Norman, 1999) physical cultural logical
    46 : Physical constraints Refer to the way physical objects restrict the movement of things E.g. only one way you can insert a key into a lock How many ways can you insert a CD or DVD disk into a computer? How physically constraining is this action? How does it differ from the insertion of a floppy disk into a computer?
    47 : Logical constraints Exploits people’s everyday common sense reasoning about the way the world works An example is they logical relationship between physical layout of a device and the way it works as the next slide illustrates
    48 : Logical or ambiguous design? Where do you plug the mouse? Where do you plug the keyboard? top or bottom connector? Do the color coded icons help? From:
    49 : How to design them more logically (i) A provides direct adjacent mapping between icon and connector (ii) B provides color coding to associate the connectors with the labels From:
    50 : Cultural constraints Learned arbitrary conventions like red triangles for warning Can be universal or culturally specific
    51 : Which are universal and which are culturally-specific?
    52 : Mapping Relationship between controls and their movements and the results in the world Why is this a poor mapping of control buttons?
    53 : Mapping Why is this a better mapping? The control buttons are mapped better onto the sequence of actions of fast rewind, rewind, play and fast forward
    54 : Activity on mappings Which controls go with which rings (burners)? A B C D
    55 : Why is this a better design?
    56 : Consistency Design interfaces to have similar operations and use similar elements for similar tasks For example: always use ctrl key plus first initial of the command for an operation – ctrl+C, ctrl+S, ctrl+O Main benefit is consistent interfaces are easier to learn and use
    57 : When consistency breaks down What happens if there is more than one command starting with the same letter? e.g. save, spelling, select, style Have to find other initials or combinations of keys, thereby breaking the consistency rule E.g. ctrl+S, ctrl+Sp, ctrl+shift+L Increases learning burden on user, making them more prone to errors
    58 : Internal and external consistency Internal consistency refers to designing operations to behave the same within an application Difficult to achieve with complex interfaces External consistency refers to designing operations, interfaces, etc., to be the same across applications and devices Very rarely the case, based on different designer’s preference
    59 : Keypad numbers layout A case of external inconsistency 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0 (a) phones, remote controls (b) calculators, computer keypads
    60 : Affordances: to give a clue Refers to an attribute of an object that allows people to know how to use it e.g. a mouse button invites pushing, a door handle affords pulling Norman (1988) used the term to discuss the design of everyday objects Since has been much popularised in interaction design to discuss how to design interface objects e.g. scrollbars to afford moving up and down, icons to afford clicking on
    61 : What does ‘affordance’ have to offer interaction design? Interfaces are virtual and do not have affordances like physical objects Norman argues it does not make sense to talk about interfaces in terms of ‘real’ affordances Instead interfaces are better conceptualised as ‘perceived’ affordances Learned conventions of arbitrary mappings between action and effect at the interface Some mappings are better than others
    62 : Activity Physical affordances: How do the following physical objects afford? Are they obvious?
    63 : Activity Virtual affordances How do the following screen objects afford? What if you were a novice user? Would you know what to do with them?
    64 : Usability principles Similar to design principles, except more prescriptive Used mainly as the basis for evaluating systems Provide a framework for heuristic evaluation
    65 : Usability principles (Nielsen 2001) Visibility of system status Match between system and the real world User control and freedom Consistency and standards Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors Error prevention Recognition rather than recall Flexibility and efficiency of use Aesthetic and minimalist design Help and documentation
    66 : Key points ID is concerned with designing interactive products to support people in their everyday and working lives ID is multidisciplinary, involving many inputs from wide-reaching disciplines and fields ID is big business even after the crash!
    67 : Key points ID involves taking into account a number of interdependent factors including context of use, type of task and kind of user Need to strive for usability and user experience goals Design and usability principles are useful heuristics for analyzing and evaluating interactive products

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