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by: marakala

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1 : 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 1 Immune response 09/01/2010 Dr Vijay Marakala
2 : The Immune System We are constantly exposed to an incredible diversity of bacteria, viruses, and parasites How does the immune system protect us? The key is: Our ability to produce more than 108 distinct antibodies and more than 1012 T-cell receptors 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 2
3 : The immune system has 2 arms 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 3
4 : The Immune System is the Third Line of Defense Against Infection 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 4
5 : 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 5
6 : Immune response The specific reactivity induced in a host by an antigenic stimulus 2 types: 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 6
7 : LYMPHOCYTES INVOLVED IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE B lymphocytes T lymphocytes Mainly derived from bone marrow T lymphocytes are of thymic origin HUMORAL IMMUNITY CELLMEDIATED IMMUNITY 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 7
8 : The production of antibodies consists of 3 steps Humoral Immune response(AMI) 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 8 Afferent limb Central limb Efferent limb
9 : Antibody production follows a characteristic pattern 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 9
10 : Antibody Response After Exposure to Antigen 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 10
11 : The Primary and Secondary Immune Responses 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 11
12 : In the gene segment encoding the µ constant region of the heavy chain is positioned first among other constant region gene segments. 5/31/2010 3:07:30 PM 12 For this reason, IgM is the first immunoglobulin expressed by mature B cells. IgM antibodies are relatively short lived, disappearing earlier than IgG Hence, their demonstration in serum indicates recent infection IgM is the predominant Ig in early stage of Immune response
13 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 13 Fate of antigen in tissues Antigen Introduced I.V SPLEEN LIVER BM KIDNEY LUNGS Broken down by RE cells 70-80% Excreted in the urine Eliminated within 1 or 2 days Introduced Subcutaneously Draining lymph nodes
14 : Fate of antigen in tissues Antigens are removed from circulation in 2 phases 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 14
15 : Production of Antibodies Immune response to an antigen is brought about by 3 type of cells 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 15
16 : Antigen-Presenting Cells 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 16
17 : Antigen-Presenting Cells 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 17 Macrophages Dendritic cells B lymphocytes Follicular dendritic cells
18 : Major Histocompatibility Complex The task of displaying cell-associated antigens for recognition by T cells is performed by specialized proteins that are encoded by genes in a locus called the MHC 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 18
19 : Major Histocompatibility Complex 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 19
20 : Major Histocompatibility Complex 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 20
21 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 21
22 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 22
23 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 23 Lymphocytes B - Lymphocytes HUMORAL IMMUNITY T - Lymphocytes CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells NK cells
24 : Lymphocytes Provides 2 defining characteristics of the adaptive immune response, 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 24
25 : T Cells Only Recognize Antigen Associated with MHC Molecules on Cell Surfaces 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 25 T cell recognize peptides with MHC by T cell receptor
26 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 26 T cell receptor
27 : © Ranjith’s Central Role of Helper T Cells 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 27
28 : Cytotoxic T Cells Lyse Infected Cells 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 28
29 : Humoral Response to Antigens 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 29
30 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 30 Immune response by IgE
31 : Factors influencing antibody production 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 31
32 : Cellular immune response (CMI) Specific immune response that do not involve antibodies. Scope of CMI 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 32
33 : Induction of CMI Antigenic stimulus Only T-cell dependant antigens lead to CMI T-cell bears specific receptor on its surface T cells recognize antigens only when presented with MHC molecules Helper T-cells Cytotoxic T-cells 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 33
34 : CYTOKINES Biologically active substances released by activated T lymphocytes were called LYMPHOKINES 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 34 Similar substance produced by Monocytes Macrophages MONOKINES
35 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 35 CYTOKINES
36 : Cytokines - classification 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 36
37 : Cytokines Peptide mediators or intracellular messengers which regulate immunological, inflammatory and reparative host responses They are potent hormone like substances Produced by lymphocytes, macrophages, platelets & fibroblasts 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 37
38 : Cytokines 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 38
39 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 39
40 : Source: Macrophages & other cells IL-1a and IL-1ß Functions: Proliferation & differentiation of T, B and other cells Pyrogenic Bone marrow cell proliferation Interleukin-1 (LAF) 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 40
41 : Source: T-cells Powerful modulator of the immune response Functions: Promote growth and differentiation of T and B cells Cytotoxicity of T and NK cells Secretions of other lymphokines Interleukin-2[TCGF] 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 41
42 : Interleukin-2[TCGF] 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 42
43 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 43
44 : Stimulates the growth & differentiation of pleuripotent stem cells in the bone marrow Responsible for adjusting the rate of production of blood cells Treating hematopoietic dysfunctions in infections & malignancies Colony stimulating factors 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 44
45 : Induce hemorrhagic necrosis in certain tumours 2 types: TNFa and TNFß Cachectin is TNFa Tumour necrosis factors 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 45
46 : Originally identified as antiviral agents a-Produced by leucocytes ß-Produced by fibroblasts ?-Produced by T-cells Functions: Macrophage activation Antitumour activity Interferons 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 46
47 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 47
48 : 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM 48 Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity Antigens APC MHC TCR CYTOKINES SUMMARY
49 : Kuby IMMUNOLOGY Fifth Edition References 49 5/31/2010 3:07:31 PM

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