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    Add as FriendIndian River System

    by: Manan

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    1 : River System in India PowerPoint Presentation ON Made By :- Manan Singhal
    2 : Acknowledgement I would like to acknowledge my Sst. teacher Miss. Anjali Sharma mam who helped me a lot and was the biggest source of information for me. There is also a vital role of my parents who supported and helped me a lot .
    3 : INDEX Indian Rivers and their Importance Himalayan Rivers INDUS RIVER Ganga River BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER Peninsular Rivers Narmada Basin Godavari Basin Mahanadi Basin Kaveri River
    4 : Indian Rivers and their Importance The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country. This easily explains why nearly all the major cities of India are located by the banks of rivers. The rivers also have an important role in Hindu mythology and are considered holy by all Hindus in the country. Seven major rivers along with their numerous tributaries make up the river system of India. Most of the rivers pour their waters into the Bay of Bengal; however, some of the rivers whose courses take them through the western part of the country and towards the east of the state of Himachal Pradesh empty into the Arabian Sea. Parts of Ladakh, northern parts of the Aravalli range and the arid parts of the Thar Desert have inland drainage. Dr.Francis Buchanan surveyed the courses of the rivers of India along with their tributaries and branches in 1810-11 AD and presented a minute account of it. The shifting of the courses and bed over the centuries is very remarkable. Many of the channels mentioned in that survey have now become dead , dried or even extinct.
    5 : River System in India is mainly divided into 2 groups :- Himalayan Rivers Peninsular Rivers
    6 : Himalayan Rivers
    7 : Some Information About this river system Some of the world's major river systems arise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin is home to some 3 billion people (almost half of Earth's population) in 18 countries. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of South Asia; many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
    8 : INDUS RIVER The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan, as well as India and China. Originating in the Tibetan plateau of western China in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the river runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and then enters Pakistan via the Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan), flowing through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan, to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the river is 3,180 kilometers (1,976 miles) and it is Pakistan's longest river. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 square kilometers (450,000 square miles). The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometers, making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Together with the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Beas and two tributaries from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Afghanistan, the Indus forms the delta of Pakistan mentioned in the Vedic Rig Veda as Sapta Sindhu and the Iranic Zend Avesta as Hapta Hindu, (both sets of terms meaning Seven Rivers).
    9 : March 31 2008: A seminar organized by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Sindh, was informed that the Indus river is highly polluted. The levels of various parameters are high enough to classify the river as polluted. Even the coliform level, which should have not been present in water bodies at all, averaged 800 per 100 ml. It is a fact that the Indus river is polluted due to indiscriminate discharges of untreated municipal and industrial wastewater, the Manchar Lake discharges make the pollution further distinct during periods of low flows (December-January). But the comparison of water quality of this river and other water bodies with the international standards made at the seminar, was not justified. The water quality of Indus river was compared with the WHO’s guidelines for drinking-water and the EU’s drinking-water standards. The international drinking-water guidelines and standards do not apply to waters of the surface water bodies (Indus river, Phuleli Canal, Manchar Lake, Danistar Canal, Haleji Lake, Pinyari Canal, etc). It is just like comparing oranges with apples. Pollution in this river :-
    10 : Ganga River The Ganges or Ganga is a trans-boundary river of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km (1,569 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. By discharge it ranks among the world's top 20 rivers. The Ganges basin is the most heavily populated river basin in the world, with over 400 million people and a population density of about 1,000 inhabitants per square mile (390 /km2). The Ganges is the most sacred river to Hindus and is also a lifeline to millions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs. It is worshiped as the goddess Ganga in Hinduism.It has also been important historically: many former provincial or imperial capitals (such as Patliputra, Kannauj,Kara, Kashi, Allahabad, Murshidabad, Munger, Baharampur and Kolkata) have been located on its banks.
    11 : The Ganga ranks among the top five most polluted rivers of the world with fecal coliform levels in the river near Varanasi more than hundred times the official Indian government limits. Pollution threatens not only humans, but also more than 140 fish species, 90 amphibian species and the endangered Ganges river dolphin. The Ganga Action Plan, an environmental initiative to clean up the river, has been a major failure thus far, due to corruption and lack of technical expertise, lack of good environmental planning ,Indian traditions and beliefs, and lack of support from religious authorities. Pollution in this holy river :-
    12 : BRAHMAPUTRA RIVER The Brahmaputra also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia. From its origin in southwestern Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges and into Arunachal Pradesh (India) where it is known as Dihang. It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta it merges with the Padma, the main distributary of the ganges, then the Meghna, before emptying into the Bay of Bengal. About 1,800 miles (2,900 km) long, the Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is 124 feet (38 m) and maximum depth is 380 feet (120 m). The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in spring when the Himalayan snows melt. The average discharge of the river is about 19,300 cubic metres per second (680,000 cu ft/s), and floods can reach over 100,000 cubic metres per second. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").
    13 : Pollution of this river :- The Brahmaputra is the least polluted of all other major rivers of India. Most of the pollutions are created by Oil Industries of Assam and wastes of cities like Guwahati. The pollution concern around Guwahati is increasing day by day, and it's high time to stop it now or we will have to pay the consequences soon!
    14 : PENINSULAR SYSTEM RIVER
    15 : Some Information About this river system Peninsular India is sapped by five important river systems and they are as follows:- Godavari, Mahanadi , Krishna, Kaveri and Penner The geography and weather of Peninsular India are two superseding forcible checks influencing the rivers of Peninsular India. Through influencing the flora and soil of the territory, the weather and geography become two important deciding elements of the sediment logical natures and the entire procedure of soil corrosion, silting, and transfer factors in every catchment area of the river. The spare flora of the flat terrain has a lot of differences with the reasonably abundant flora of the river basins. Given below are the brief accounts of some important peninsular rivers in India:
    16 : The Narmada also called Rewa is a river in central India and the fifth largest river in the Indian subcontinent. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India and flows westwards over a length of 1,312 km (815.2 mi) before draining through the Gulf of Cambey (Khambat) into the Arabian Sea, 30 km (18.6 mi) west of Bharuch city of Gujarat. It is one of only three major rivers in peninsular India that runs from east to west (largest west flowing river) along with the Tapti River and the Mahi River. It is the only river in India that flows in a rift valley  flowing west between the Satpura and Vindhya ranges although the Tapti River and Mahi River also flow through rift valleys but between different ranges. It flows through the states of  Madhya Pradesh (1,077 km (669.2 mi)), Maharashtra, (74 km (46.0 mi))– (35 km (21.7 mi)) border between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra and (39 km (24.2 mi) border between Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat and in Gujarat (161 km (100.0 mi)). Narmada Basin
    17 : The Godavari is a river that runs from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the big river basins in India. With a length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India (only after the Ganga), that runs within the country and also the longest river in South India. It originates near Trimbak in Nashik District of Maharashtra state and flows east across the Deccan Plateau into the Bay of Bengal near Narasapuram in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. The Godavari River is a major waterway in central India, originating in the Western Ghats Trimbakeshwar, in the Nashik Subdivision or District Of Maharashtra and flowing eastwardly across the Deccan Plateau through the state of Maharashtra. It is known as dakshin ganga (Southern Ganga). It enters Andhra Pradesh at Kandhakurthi in Nizamabad district. While passing through telangana region of Andhra Pradesh it touches a small village called Dharmapuri which is a pilgrimage village with many ancient Hindu temples and river Godavari serving as spiritual place in true sense for bathing in Godavari river spread over rocks and sand. While crossing the Deccan Plateau and then turns to flow in a southeast direction until it empties into the Bay of Bengal through two mouths. Basara, on the banks of Godavari in Adilabad District, is home to a famous temple for Goddess Saraswati and is the second temple for the Goddess in India. Godavari Basin
    18 : Mahanadi Basin The Mahanadi in East Central India. It drains an area of around 132,100 km2 and has a total course of 858 km.  The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarhand Orissa. Like many other seasonal Indian rivers, the Mahanadi too is a combination of many mountain streams and thus its precise source is impossible to pinpoint. However its farthest headwaters lie 6 km from Pharisiya village 442 m above sea level south of Nagri town in Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh. The hills here are an extension of the Eastern Ghats and are a source of many other streams which then go on to join the Mahanadi. For the first 80 km of its course, the Mahanadi flows in a northerly direction and drains the Raipur district and touches eastern portions of Raipur city. It is a rather narrow river at this stage, the total length of its valley not exceeding 500–600 metres. It then enters the old Bilaspur  district where it is joined by its first major tributary, the Seonath.
    19 : The Kaveri  also spelled Cauvery in English, is one of the major rivers of India. The origin of the river is traditionally placed at Talakaveri, Kodagu in the Western Ghats in Karnataka, flows generally south and east through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and across the southern Deccan plateau through the southeastern lowlands, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths. The Kaveri basin is estimated to be 27,700 square miles (72,000 km2) with many tributaries including the Shimsha, the Hemavati (river), the Arkavati,  Honnuhole,  Lakshmana Tirtha,  Kabini,  Bhavani River, the Lokapavani, the Noyyal and the Amaravati River. Rising in southwestern Karnataka, it flows southeast some 475 mi (765 km) to enter the Bay of Bengal. East of Mysore it forms the island of Shivanasamudra, on either side of which are the scenic Shivanasamudra Falls that descend about 320 ft (100 m).  The river is the source for an extensive irrigation system and for hydroelectric power. The river has supported irrigated agriculture for centuries and served as the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India. Kaveri River
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