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    Add as FriendIntroduction of computers

    by: sibasisa

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    2 : OVERVIEW What is computer ? History of computer Parts of computer Types of computer Working principle of computer Input & output devices Internet Application of computers Conclusion
    3 : WHAT IS COMPUTER ? Definition: A computer is a device that takes data in one form, uses it, and produces a different form of information which is related to (but not the same as) the original data. an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit
    4 : WHAT DOES A COMPUTER DO? Computers perform four general operations input, process, output, and storage Information processing cycle inputting, processing, outputting, and storing make-up this cycle Processing requires data data – collection of raw facts, figures, and symbols given to a computer during the input operation Manipulate data to create information information – data that is organized, meaningful, and useful
    5 : HISTORY OF COMPUTERS - Long, Long Ago - beads on rods to count and calculate still widely used in Asia! Abacus - 3000 BC
    6 : HISTORY OF COMPUTERS - Way Back When- Slide Rule 1630 based on Napier’s rules for logarithms used until 1970s Slide Rule
    7 : HISTORY OF COMPUTERS - 19th Century - first stored program - metal cards first computer manufacturing still in use today! Jacquard Loom - 1801
    8 : CHARLES BABBAGE - 1792-1871- Difference Engine c.1822 huge calculator, never finished Analytical Engine 1833 could store numbers calculating “mill” used punched metal cards for instructions powered by steam! accurate to six decimal places Analytical Engine
    9 : VACUUM TUBES - 1941 - 1956 First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside. Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry.
    10 : UNIVAC - 1951 first fully electronic digital computer built in the U.S. Created at the University of Pennsylvania ENIAC weighed 30 tons contained 18,000 vacuum tubes Cost a paltry $487,000
    11 : GRACE HOPPER Programmed UNIVAC Recipient of Computer Science’s first “Man of the Year Award”
    12 : FIRST TRANSISTOR Uses Silicon developed in 1948 won a Nobel prize on-off switch Second Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956
    13 : THE FIRST MICROPROCESSOR – 1971 The 4004 had 2,250 transistors four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s) 108Khz Called “Microchip” Intel 4004 Microprocessor
    14 : WHAT IS A MICROCHIP? Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC) Transistors, resistors, and capacitors 4004 had 2,250 transistors Pentium IV has 42 MILLION transistors Each transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters)
    15 : BIRTH OF PERSONAL COMPUTERS - 1975 256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes) 2 MHz Intel 8080 chips Just a box with flashing lights cost $395 kit, $495 assembled. MITS Altair
    16 : IBM PC - 1981 IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture First wide-selling personal computer used in business 8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors 4.77 Mhz processing speed 256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard One or two floppy disk drives
    17 : APPLE COMPUTERS Founded 1977 Apple II released 1977 widely used in schools Macintosh (left) released in 1984, Motorola 68000 Microchip processor first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)
    19 : WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER? Six primary components input devices the processor memory output devices storage devices communications devices the processor, memory, and storage device are housed in a box-like case called the system unit
    20 : INPUT DEVICES Any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer Input Device Examples Keyboard Mouse
    21 : PROCESSOR Processor or central processing unit (CPU) – interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer made up of the control unit and arithmetic/logic unit control unit – interprets the instructions arithmetic/logic unit – performs the logical and arithmetic processes 42 million transistors and performs operations 10 million times in a tenth of a second
    22 : SYSTEM UNIT
    23 : MEMORY Memory or random access memory (RAM) – electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processed data consists of one or more chips on the motherboard motherboard or system board – main circuit board to which electronic components are attached memory is measured in kilobytes or megabytes 1 kilobyte (K or KB) = 1,000 memory locations 1 megabyte (M or MB) = 1,000,000 memory locations memory location or byte – stores one character
    24 : OUTPUT DEVICES Output devices make the information resulting from processing available for use Output Device Examples Printers Impact Nonimpact Photo Display Devices CRT LCD
    25 : STORAGE DEVICES Magnetic disks use magnetic particles to store items on a disk’s surface Floppy disks Zip disks Hard disks
    27 : STORAGE DEVICES Miniature mobile storage media
    28 : COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES Communications device – hardware component that enables a computer to send (transmit) and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers widely used communication device is the modem communications occur over transmission media cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, and satellites some are wireless
    29 : COMPUTER SOFTWARE two types of software system software application software System software – programs to control the operations of computer equipment operating system – set of programs that tell the computer how to perform the functions of loading, storing, and executing an application program and how to transfer data booting – when a computer is turned on, the operating system is loaded into the computer’s memory from auxiliary storage graphical user interface (GUI) – visual cues or icon symbols
    31 : THE MANY KINDS OF COMPUTERS Computers can be classified by three sets of characteristics: Electronic versus Mechanical General-purpose versus Special-purpose Digital versus Analog
    33 : ANALOG COMPUTER Analog computer measures and answer the questions by the method of “HOW MUCH”. The input data is not a number infect a physical quantity like tem, pressure, speed, velocity. Signals are continuous of (0 to 10 V) Accuracy 1% Approximately High speed Output is continuous Time is wasted in transmission time
    34 : DIGITAL COMPUTERS Digital computer counts and answer the questions by the method of “HOW Many”. The input data is represented by a number. These are used for the logical and arithmetic operations. Signals are two level of (0 V or 5 V) Accuracy unlimited low speed sequential as well as parallel processing Output is continuous but obtain when computation is completed.
    35 : MICRO COMPUTER Micro computer are the smallest computer system. There size range from calculator to desktop size. Its CPU is microprocessor. It also known as Grand child Computer. Application : - personal computer, Multi user system, offices.
    36 : MINI COMPUTER These are also small general purpose system. They are generally more powerful and most useful as compared to micro computer. Mini computer are also known as mid range computer or Child computer. Application :- Departmental systems, Network Servers, work group system.
    37 : MAIN FRAME COMPUTER Mainframe computers are those computers that offer faster processing and grater storage area. The word “main frame” comes from the metal frames. It is also known as Father computer. Application – Host computer, Central data base server.
    38 : SUPER COMPUTER Super computer are those computer which are designed for scientific job like whether forecasting and artificial intelligence etc. They are fastest and expensive. A super computer contains a number of CPU which operate in parallel to make it faster. It also known as grand father computer. Application – whether forecasting, weapons research and development.
    40 : HYBRID COMPUTER The combination of features of analog and digital computer is called Digital computer. The main example are central national defense and passenger flight radar system. They are also used to control robots.
    41 : CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL COMPUTER Desktop Workstation Notebook Tablet PC Handheld computer Smart Phone
    43 : TABLET PC
    44 : NOTE BOOK
    46 : SMART PHONE
    47 : Computers built on the von Neumann model divide the computer hardware into four subsystems: memory, arithmetic logic unit, control unit, and input/output WORKING PRINCIPLE OF COPMPUTER Figure 1.5 The von Neumann model
    48 : USES OF COMPUTERS Microwave ovens, Appliances, Amusement machines, Phones, Cars, etc... Most electronic devices have some form of computer-control in them. Becoming more and more connected. Most of us don’t realise just how often we come in contact with computers!
    49 : NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET A network is a collection of computers and devices connected via communications media and devices A local area network (LAN) connects computers in a limited geographic area A wide area network (WAN) covers a large geographical area
    50 : NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET Local Area Network (LAN) Wide Area Network (WAN)
    51 : NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET The world’s largest network is the internet Most users connect to the internet in one of two ways: Internet service provider Online service provider
    52 : THE WORLD WIDE WEB One of the more popular segments of the Internet is the World Wide Web, also called the Web A Web page is a document that contains text, graphics, sound, and/or video and has built-in connections, or hyperlinks to other Web documents A Web site is a related collection of Web pages You access and view Web pages using a software program called a Web browser A Web page has a unique address, called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
    54 : WHY IS A COMPUTER SO POWERFUL? Power is derived from the computer’s capability to perform the information processing cycle with speed, reliability, and accuracy The computer’s capacity to store huge amounts of data and information The computer’s ability to communicate with other computers
    55 : WHAT’S NEXT FOR COMPUTERS? Use your imagination to come up with what the next century holds for computers. What can we expect in two years? What can we expect in twenty years?

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