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    Add as FriendIntroduction to ASICS

    by: Murthy

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    1 : INTRODUCTION TO ASIC DESIGN Dr. Y. Narasimha Murthy Ph.D Sri Sai Baba National College (Autonomous) ANANTAPUR-515001-A.P-INDIA
    2 : Introduction ASIC [“a-sick”] is an acronym for Application Specific Integrated Circuit. As the name indicates, ASIC is a non-standard integrated circuit that is designed for a specific use or application. Generally an ASIC design will be undertaken for a product that will have a large production run , and the ASIC may contain a very large part of the electronics needed on a single integrated circuit.
    3 : Contd.. Examples for ASIC Ics are : a chip for a toy bear that talks; a chip for a satellite; a chip designed to handle the interface between memory and a microprocessor for a workstation CPU; and a chip containing a microprocessor as a cell together with other logic.
    4 : Contd.. Two ICs that might or might not be considered as ASICs are, a controller chip for a PC and a chip for a modem. Both of these examples are specific to an application (shades of an ASIC) but are sold to many different system vendors (shades of a standard part). ASICs such as these are sometimes called application-specific standard products ( ASSPs ).
    5 : Types of ASICs The classification of ASICs is shown below
    6 : Contd.. So, as shown in the slide the ASICs are broadly classified into three types. I. Full-Custom ASICs II. Semi-custom ASICs III. Programmable ASICs
    7 : Full-Custom ASICs A Full custom ASIC is one which includes some (possibly all) logic cells that are customized and all mask layers that are customized. A microprocessor is an example of a full-custom IC . Designers spend many hours squeezing the most out of every last square micron of microprocessor chip space by hand. Customizing all of the IC features in this way allows designers to include analog circuits, optimized memory cells, or mechanical structures on an IC, for example. Full-custom ICs are the most expensive to manufacture and to design.
    8 : Contd.. The manufacturing lead time (the time required just to make an IC not including design time) is typically eight weeks for a full-custom IC. These specialized full-custom ICs are often intended for a specific application so, we might call some of them as full-custom ASICs.
    9 : Contd… In a full-custom ASIC an engineer designs some or all of the logic cells, circuits, or layout specifically for one ASIC. This means the designer avoids using pretested and pre characterized cells for all or part of that design. This might be because existing cell libraries are not fast enough, or the logic cells are not small enough or consume too much power.
    10 : Contd… One has to use full-custom design if the ASIC technology is new or so specialized that there are no existing cell libraries or because the ASIC is so specialized that some circuits must be custom designed. Fewer and fewer full-custom ICs are being designed because of the problems with these special parts of the ASIC. The growing member of this family, now a days is , the mixed analog/digital ASIC,
    11 : Semicustom ASICs ASICs , for which all of the logic cells are predesigned and some (possibly all) of the mask layers are customized are called semi custom ASICs. Using the predesigned cells from a cell library makes the design , much easier. There are two types of semicustom ASICs (i) Standard-cell–based ASICs (ii)Gate-array–based ASICs.
    12 : Standard-Cell Based ASICs A cell-based ASIC (cell-based IC, or CBIC pronounced sea-bick) uses predesigned logic cells (AND gates, OR gates, multiplexers, and flip-flops, for example) known as standard cells. One can apply the term CBIC to any IC that uses cells, but it is generally accepted that a cell-based ASIC or CBIC means a standard-cell based ASIC.
    13 : Contd… The standard-cell areas (also called flexible blocks) in a CBIC are built of rows of standard cells like a wall built of bricks. The standard-cell areas may be used in combination with microcontrollers or even microprocessors, known as mega cells. Mega cells are also called mega functions, full-custom blocks, system-level macros (SLMs), fixed blocks, cores, or Functional Standard Blocks (FSBs).
    14 : A cell-based ASIC (CBIC) die with a single standard-cell area (a flexible block) together with four fixed blocks.
    15 : Contd… The ASIC designer defines only the placement of the standard cells and the interconnect in a CBIC. However, the standard cells can be placed anywhere on the silicon; this means that all the mask layers of a CBIC are customized and are unique to a particular customer. The advantage of CBICs is that designers save time, money, and reduce risk by using a predesigned, pretested, and pre characterized standard-cell library. In addition each standard cell can be optimized individually. During the design of the cell library each and every transistor in every standard cell can be chosen to maximize speed or minimize area .
    16 : Contd… The disadvantages are the time or expense of designing or buying the standard-cell library and the time needed to fabricate all layers of the ASIC for each new design.
    17 : Gate-Array Based ASICs In a gate array (sometimes abbreviated GA) or gate-array based ASIC the transistors are predefined on the silicon wafer. The predefined pattern of transistors on a gate array is the base array , and the smallest element that is replicated to make the base array is the base cell (sometimes called a primitive cell ).
    18 : Contd… Only the top few layers of metal, which define the interconnect between transistors, are defined by the designer using custom masks. To distinguish this type of gate array from other types of gate array, it is often called a masked gate array ( MGA ). The designer chooses from a gate-array library of predesigned and pre-characterized logic cells
    19 : Contd… The logic cells in a gate-array library are often called macros . The reason for this is that the base-cell layout is the same for each logic cell, and only the interconnect (inside cells and between cells) is customized, which is similar to a software macro.
    20 : Types of MGA or Gate-array based ASICs There are three types of Gate Array based ASICs. Channeled gate arrays. Channelless gate arrays. Structured gate arrays.
    21 : Channeled gate arrays The channeled gate array was the first to be developed . In a channeled gate array space is left between the rows of transistors for wiring. A channeled gate array is similar to a CBIC. Both use the rows of cells separated by channels used for interconnect. One difference is that the space for interconnect between rows of cells are fixed in height in a channeled gate array, whereas the space between rows of cells may be adjusted in a CBIC.
    22 : A channeled gate-array die
    23 : Features of MGA Only the interconnect is customized. The interconnect uses predefined spaces between rows of base cells. Manufacturing lead time is between two days and two weeks.
    24 : Channel less Gate Array This channel less gate-array architecture is now more widely used . The routing on a channelless gate array uses rows of unused transistors. The key difference between a channel less gate array and channeled gate array is that there are no predefined areas set aside for routing between cells on a channel less gate array. Instead we route over the top of the gate-array devices. We can do this because we customize the contact layer that defines the connections between metal 1, the first layer of metal, and the transistors.
    25 : Features of Channel less Gate Array Only the interconnect is customized. The interconnect uses predefined spaces between rows of base cells. Manufacturing lead time is around two days to two weeks. When we use an area of transistors for routing in a channel less array, we do not make any contacts to the devices lying underneath , we simply leave the transistors unused.
    26 : A channel less gate-array or sea-of-gates (SOG) array die.
    27 : Contd… The basic difference between a channel less gate array and channeled gate array is that there are no predefined areas set aside for routing between cells on a channel less gate array. Instead we route over the top of the gate-array devices. It is done like this because we customize the contact layer that defines the connections between metal1, the first layer of metal, and the transistors. When we use an area of transistors for routing in a channel less array, we do not make any contacts to the devices lying underneath; we simply leave the transistors unused.
    28 : Contd… The logic density ,the amount of logic that can be implemented in a given silicon area is higher for channel less gate arrays than for channeled gate arrays. This is usually attributed to the difference in structure between the two types of array. In fact, the difference occurs because the contact mask is customized in a channel less gate array, but is not usually customized in a channeled gate array. This leads to denser cells in the channel less architectures. Customizing the contact layer in a channel less gate array allows us to increase the density of gate-array cells because we can route over the top of unused contact sites.
    29 : Structured Gate Array This design combines some of the features of CBICs and MGAs.It is also known as an embedded gate array or structured gate array(also called as master slice or master image). One of the limitations of the MGA is the fixed gate-array base cell. This makes the implementation of memory, difficult and inefficient. In an embedded gate array some of the IC area is set aside and dedicate it to a specific function. This embedded area either can contain a different base cell that is more suitable for building memory cells, or it can contain a complete circuit block, such as a microcontroller.
    30 : A structured or embedded gate-array die showing an embedded block in the upper left corner
    31 : Features of Structured Gate Array Only the interconnect is customized. Custom blocks (the same for each design) can be embedded. Manufacturing lead time is between two days and two weeks. An embedded gate array gives the improved area efficiency and increased performance of a CBIC but with the lower cost and faster turn around of an MGA. The disadvantage of an embedded gate array is that the embedded function is fixed.
    32 : Contd… For example, if an embedded gate array contains an area set aside for a 32 k-bit memory, but we only need a 16 k-bit memory, then we may have to waste half of the embedded memory function. However, this may still be more efficient and cheaper than implementing a 32 k-bit memory using macros on a SOG array
    33 : Programmable Logic Devices Programmable logic devices ( PLDs ) are standard ICs that are available in standard configurations. However, PLDs may be configured or programmed to create a part customized to a specific application, and so they also belong to the family of ASICs. PLDs use different technologies to allow programming of the device.
    34 : A programmable logic device (PLD) die.
    35 : Features of PLDs No customized mask layers or logic cells Fast design turnaround A single large block of programmable interconnect A matrix of logic macro cells that usually consist of programmable array logic followed by a flip-flop or latch
    36 : Contd… The simplest type of programmable IC is a read-only memory( ROM ). The most common types of ROM use a metal fuse that can be blown permanently (a programmable ROM or PROM ). An electrically programmable ROM , or EPROM , uses programmable MOS transistors whose characteristics are altered by applying a high voltage.
    37 : Contd… One can erase an EPROM either by using another high voltage (an electrically erasable PROM , or EEPROM ) or by exposing the device to ultraviolet light (UV-erasable PROM, or UVPROM). There is another type of ROM that can be placed on any ASIC a mask-programmable ROM (mask-programmed ROM or masked ROM). A masked ROM is a regular array of transistors permanently programmed using custom mask patterns. So, an embedded masked ROM is a large, specialized, logic cell.
    38 : Field-Programmable Gate Arrays(FPGAs) FPGAs are the newest member of the ASIC family and are rapidly growing in , replacing TTL in microelectronic systems. Even though an FPGA is a type of gate array, we do not consider the term gate-array based ASICs to include FPGAs. There is very little difference between an FPGA and a PLD .An FPGA is usually just larger and more complex than a PLD. In fact, some vendors that manufacture programmable ASICs call their products as FPGAs and some call them as complex PLDs .
    39 : Characteristics of an FPGA None of the mask layers are customized. There is a method for programming the basic logic cells and the interconnect. The core is a regular array of programmable basic logic cells that can implement combinational as well as sequential logic (flip-flops). A matrix of programmable interconnect surrounds the basic logic cells. Programmable I/O cells surround the core. Design turnaround is a few hours.
    40 : Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) die.
    41 : Contd… The architecture consists of configurable logic blocks, configurable I/O blocks, and programmable interconnect. Also, there will be clock circuitry for driving the clock signals to each logic block, and additional logic resources such as ALUs, memory, and decoders may be available. The two basic types of programmable elements for an FPGA are Static RAM and anti-fuses.
    42 : contd… Examples of SRAM based FPGA families are Altera FLEX family Atmel AT6000 and AT40K families Lucent Technologies ORCA family Xilinx XC4000 and Virtex families Examples of Anti-fuse based FPGA families are Actel SX and MX families Quick logic pASIC family
    43 : CPLDs vs. FPGAs CPLD FPGA Architecture: PAL-like Gate Array-like Density: Low to medium Medium to high 12 22V10s or more up to 1 million gates Speed: Fast, predictable Application dependent Interconnect: Crossbar Routing Power Consumption: High Medium
    44 : Design Flow The sequence of steps to design an ASIC is known as the Design flow . The various steps involved in ASIC design flow are given below. Design entry : Design entry is a stage where the micro architecture is implemented in a Hardware Description language like VHDL, Verilog , System Verilog etc. In early days , a schematic editor was used for design entry where designers instantiated gates. Increased complexity in the current designs require the use of HDLs to gain productivity . Another advantage is that HDLs are independent of process technology and hence can be re-used over time .
    45 : Contd… 2. Logic synthesis: Use an HDL (VHDL or Verilog) and a logic synthesis tool to produce a net list a description of the logic cells and their connections 3.System partitioning : Divide a large system into ASIC-sized pieces. 4. Pre-layout simulation: Check to see if the design functions correctly. 5. Floor planning: Arrange the blocks of the netlist on the chip. 6. Placement: Decide the locations of cells in a block. 7. Routing: Make the connections between cells and blocks.
    46 : Contd… 8.Extraction : Determine the resistance and capacitance of the interconnect. 9. Post layout simulation. It is used to check to see whether the design still works with the added loads of the interconnect or not The flow diagram is shown in the next slide.
    47 : ASIC design flow diagram
    48 : Contd… In the flow diagram the steps from 1 to 4 are part of logical design ,and steps from 5 to 9 are part of physical design. When we are performing system partitioning we have to consider both logical and physical factors.
    49 : CMOS Design Rules The design rules are Interface between designer and process engineer and guidelines for constructing process masks The figures in the next slides defines the design rules for a CMOS process using pictures. Arrows between objects denote a minimum spacing, and arrows showing the size of an object denote a minimum width. Rule 3.1, for example, is the minimum width of poly (2 l ).
    50 : Diagram 1
    51 : Diagram 2
    52 : Contd… Dimensions are in l . Rule numbers are in parentheses (missing rule sets 11 to 13 are extensions to this basic process) Each of the rule numbers may have different values for different manufacturers there are no standards for design rules
    53 : Reference Application-Specific Integrated Circuits- Michael John Sebastian Smith , Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

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