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    Add as FriendIntroduction to the World of Computers

    by: Rogers

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    1 : Chapter 1 Introduction to the World of Computers
    2 : 2 Learning Objectives Explain why it is essential to learn about computers today and discuss several ways computers are integrated into our business and personal lives. Define a computer and describe its primary operations. List some important milestones in computer evolution. Identify the major parts of a personal computer, including input, processing, output, storage, and communications hardware. Define software and understand how it is used to instruct the computer what to do.
    3 : Learning Objectives List the five basic types of computers, giving at least one example of each type of computer and stating what that computer might be used for. Explain what a network, the Internet, and the World Wide Web are, as well as how computers, people, and Web pages are identified on the Internet. Describe how to access a Web page. Discuss the societal impact of computers, including some benefits and risks related to their prominence in our society.
    4 : 4 Overview This chapter covers: What computers do and how they are used Computer terminology An overview of the history of computers The basic types of computers in use today An overview of networks and the Internet Societal impacts of computers
    5 : 5 Computers in Your Life Why learn about computers? Pervasive computing Also known as ubiquitous computing Computers have become an integral part of our lives Basic computer literacy Knowing about and understanding computers and their uses is an essential skill today for everyone
    6 : 6 Computers in Your Life Before 1980 Computers were large, expensive Very few people had access to them Computers were mostly used for high-volume processing tasks Microcomputers in the early 80s Inexpensive personal computers Computer use increased dramatically Today More than 60% of US households include a computer, and most use computers at work Electronic devices are converging into single units with multiple capabilities
    7 : 7 Computers in the Home Computers used for a variety of tasks: Looking up information and news Exchange e-mail Shopping and paying bills Downloading music and movies Organizing digital photographs Playing games Telecommuting Convergence The computer has become the central part of home entertainment Dual-mode mobile phones
    8 : 8 Computers in the Home Wireless networking Computers can be used in nearly any location Smart appliances Traditional appliances with built-in computer or communication technology Smart homes Household tasks are monitored and controlled by a main computer in the house
    9 : 9 Computers in the Home
    10 : 10 Computers in Education K-12 schools now use the computer as an overall student-based learning tool Colleges and universities are even more integrated Classrooms, computer labs, dorms, libraries Wireless hotspots and Internet assignments Teachers Prepare handouts, exams, and class presentations Maintain course Web pages Distance learning Students participate from locations other than the traditional classroom setting using computers and Internet access
    11 : 11 Computers in Education
    12 : 12 Computers in the Workplace Computers have become a universal on-the-job tool for decision-making, productivity, and communication Used by all types of employees Used for access control and other security measures Use by service professionals is growing Used extensively by the military Employees in all lines of work need to continually refresh their computer skills
    13 : 13 Computers in the Workplace
    14 : 14 Computers on the Go Computers are encountered in nearly every aspect of daily life Portable PCs and handheld computers Wi-Fi hotspots and Internet cafes ATM machines and retail stores Self-checkout systems and consumer kiosks M-commerce systems GPS systems
    15 : 15 Computers on the Go
    16 : 16 What Is a Computer and What Does It Do? Computer: A programmable, electronic device that accepts data, performs operations on that data, and stores the data or results as needed Computers follow instructions, called programs, which determine the tasks the computer will perform Basic operations Input: Entering data into the computer Processing: Performing operations on the data Output: Presenting the results Storage: Saving data, programs, or output for future use Communications: Sending or receiving data
    17 : 17 What Is a Computer and What Does It Do?
    18 : 18 Data vs. Information Data Raw, unorganized facts Can be in the form of text, graphics, audio, or video Information Data that has been processed into a meaningful form Information processing Converting data into information
    19 : 19 Computers Then and Now The computer as we know it is a fairly recent invention The history of computers is often referred to in terms of generations Each new generation is characterized by a major technological development Precomputers and early computers (before 1945) Abacus, slide rule, mechanical calculator Punch Card Tabulating Machine and Sorter 19
    20 : 20 Computers Then and Now First-generation computers (1946-1957) Enormous and powered by vacuum tubes Used a great deal of electricity, and generated a lot of heat ENIAC and UNIVAC Second-generation computers (1958-1963) Used transistors Computers were smaller, more powerful, cheaper, more efficient, and more reliable Punch cards and magnetic tape were used to input and store data
    21 : 21 Computers Then and Now Third-generation computers (1964-1970) Used integrated circuits (ICs) Keyboards and monitors introduced Fourth-generation computers (1971-present) Use microprocessors IBM PC, Apple Macintosh Use keyboards, mice, monitors, and printers Use magnetic disks, flash memory, and optical disks for storage Computer networks, wireless technologies, Internet introduced
    22 : 22 Computers Then and Now Fifth-generation (now and the future) Infancy stage No precise classification May be based on artificial intelligence (AI) Likely use voice input May be based on optical computers and utilize nanotechnology
    23 : 23 Computers Then and Now
    24 : 24 Hardware Hardware: The physical parts of a computer Internal hardware Located inside the main box (system unit) of the computer External hardware Located outside the system unit and plug into ports located on the exterior of the system unit Hardware associated with all five computer operations
    25 : 25 Hardware
    26 : 26 Hardware Input devices Used to input data into the computer Keyboards, mice, scanners, cameras, microphones, joysticks, etc. Processing devices Perform calculations and control computer’s operation Central processing unit (CPU) and memory Output devices Present results to the user Monitors, printers, speakers, projectors, etc.
    27 : 27 Hardware Storage devices Used to store data on or access data from storage media Hard drives, DVD disks and drives, USB flash drives, etc. Communications devices Allow users to communicate with others and to electronically access information Modems, network adapters, etc.
    28 : 28 Hardware
    29 : 29 Software Software: The programs or instructions used to tell the computer hardware what to do System software: Operating system allows a computer to operate Boots the computer and launches programs at the user’s direction Most use a GUI to interact with the user via windows, icons, menus, buttons, etc. Windows, Mac OS, Linux, etc.
    30 : 30 Software
    31 : 31 Software
    32 : 32 Application Software Application software: Performs specific tasks or applications Creating letters, budgets, etc. Managing inventory and customer databases Editing photographs Scheduling appointments Viewing Web pages Sending and receiving e-mail Recording / playing CDs Designing homes Playing games
    33 : 33 Application Software
    34 : 34 Computer Users and Professionals Computer users (end users) People who use a computer to obtain information Computer professionals include: Programmers Systems analysts Computer operations personnel
    35 : 35 Computers to Fit Every Need Six basic categories of computers Embedded computers Mobile devices Personal computers Midrange servers Mainframe computers Supercomputers
    36 : 36 Embedded Computers Embedded computer: Embedded into a product and designed to perform specific tasks or functions for that product Cannot be used as general-purpose computers Often embedded into: Household appliances Thermostats Sewing machines A/V equipment Cars
    37 : 37 Mobile Devices Mobile device: A very small device with some type of built-in computing or Internet capability Typically based on cellular phones Examples: Smart phones Smart watches Handheld gaming devices Portable digital media players
    38 : 38 Personal Computers/Desktop PCs Personal computer: a computer system designed to be used by one person at a time Also called a microcomputer Can be desktop or portable computers Desktop PCs: fit on or next to a desk Can use tower case, desktop case, or all-in-one Can be PC-compatible or Macintosh Not designed to be portable
    39 : 39 Portable PCs Notebook (laptop) computers Typically use clamshell design Tablet PCs Can be slate tablets or convertible
    40 : 40 Portable PCs Handheld computers Size of a paperback book or pocket calculator Some include phone capabilities Ultra Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC): Fully-functioning handheld
    41 : 41 Portable PCs Most include wireless networking capabilities Can synch (share information) with a desktop computer as needed Can use a docking station or notebook stand as needed
    42 : 42 Thin Clients and Internet Appliances Thin client or network computer (NC): PC designed to access a network for processing and data storage Lower cost and easier maintenance Limited or no local storage Not able to function as a computer if network is down Internet appliance: Specialized network computer designed for Internet access and/or e-mail exchange Often set-top boxes Can include Internet-enabled gaming consoles
    43 : 43 Thin Clients and Internet Appliances
    44 : 44 Midrange Servers Midrange server: A medium-sized computer used to host programs and data for a small network Users connect via a network with a computer, thin client, or dumb terminal May consist of a collection of individual circuit boards called blades (blade servers)
    45 : 45 Mainframe Computers Mainframe computer: Powerful computer used by several large organizations to manage large amounts of centralized data Standard choice for large organizations, hospitals, universities, large businesses, banks, government offices Located in climate-controlled data centers and connected to the rest of the company computers via a network Larger, more expensive, and more powerful than midrange servers Usually operate 24 hours a day Also called high-end servers or enterprise-class servers
    46 : 46 Mainframe Computers
    47 : 47 Supercomputers Supercomputer: Fastest, most expensive, most powerful type of computer Generally run one program at a time, as fast as possible Commonly built by connecting hundreds of smaller computers, supercomputing cluster Used for space exploration, missile guidance, satellites, weather forecast, oil exploration, scientific research, complex Web sites, decision support systems, 3D applications, etc. Grid computing: Using the unused processing power of a large number of computers to work together on a single task
    48 : 48 Supercomputers
    49 : 49 Computer Networks and the Internet Computer network: A collection of hardware and other devices that are connected together. Users can share hardware, software, and data Users can communicate with each other Network servers: Manage resources on a network Clients: Access resources through the network server Computer networks exist in many sizes and types Home networks School and small business networks Large corporate Public wireless networks The Internet
    50 : 50 Computer Networks and the Internet
    51 : 51 What Are the Internet and the World Wide Web? Internet: The largest and most well-known computer network in the world Individuals connect to the Internet using an Internet service provider (ISP) World Wide Web: One resource (a vast collection of Web pages) available through the Internet Web sites contain Web pages stored on Web servers Web pages viewed using a Web browser (Internet Explorer, Safari, Firefox, Opera, etc. A wide variety of information is available through the Web
    52 : 52 What Are the Internet and the World Wide Web?
    53 : 53 Accessing a Network or the Internet Need a modem or network adapter Some networks require a username and password Internet connections can be: Direct (always-on) connections Dial-up connections Internet addresses are used to access resources on the Internet IP address: Numeric address that identifies computers (207.46.138.20) Domain name: Text-based address that identifies computers (microsoft.com) Uniform resource locator (URL): Identifies Web pages (http://www.pbskids.org) E-mail address: Identifies people for e-mail exchange (jsmith@cengage.com)
    54 : 54 IP Addresses and Domain Names IP addresses are numeric and unique Domain Names: Correspond to IP addresses Top-level domains (TLDs) identifies type of organization or its location
    55 : 55 Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) URL: Uniquely identifies a Web page Consists of: Information identifying the Web server Names of folders in which the Web page files are stored Web page’s filename Protocols: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) is typically used to display Web pages (https is used for secure Web pages File Transfer Protocol (ftp) is often used for file exchange
    56 : 56 Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
    57 : 57 E-Mail Addresses E-mail addresses consist of: Username: A persons’ identifying name for a particular domain The @ symbol Domain name for the computer that will be handling the person’s e-mail (mail server) Pronouncing Internet addresses
    58 : 58 Surfing the Web Web browser: Used to display Web pages Browser home page: The first page displayed when the browser is opened To load a Web page, you can: Type a URL in the Address bar Click a hyperlink on a displayed Web page Select a Favorite/Bookmark or page from the History list
    59 : 59 Surfing the Web
    60 : 60 Searching the Web Search site: Web page that helps you find Web pages containing the information you are seeking Typically search using keywords Reference sites: Look up addresses, telephone numbers, ZIP codes, maps, etc.
    61 : 61 E-Mail Electronic mail (e-mail): electronic messages exchanged via a private network or the Internet Can be conventional or Web-based Can contain photos, attached files, etc.
    62 : 62 Computers and Society The vast improvements in technology over the past decade have had a distinct impact on daily life, both at home and at work Many benefits of a computer-oriented society Also risks Computer viruses Identity theft and phishing Privacy issues Differences in online communications The anonymity factor Information integrity (not all information on the Internet is accurate)
    63 : 63 Summary Computers in Your Life What Is a Computer and What Does It Do Computers to Fit Every Need Computer Networks and the Internet Computers and Society
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