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    Add as FriendMastering the Abstract WritingProcess

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    1 : Mastering the Abstract Writing Process John Cole Intel ISEF D & S Chair
    2 : What Is an Abstract? A brief, written explanation of the research project, consisting of a succinct description of the project’s purpose, the procedures followed, the data collected, and the conclusions reached. A clear and simple summary statement of the main points of the experiment A self-contained statement that must make sense all by itself.
    3 : ISEF Abstract Rules Intel ISEF rules require each Finalist to write an abstract of no more than 250 words to be displayed with the project. An abstract gives the essence of the project in a brief but complete form to judges and the public viewing the Finalist’s project. Once approved, SRC provides the Finalist with two embossed copies of the abstract, one to display vertically at the project and the other to make copies to handout to judges and the public on visitors’ day.
    4 : The abstract must focus on the current year's research and give only minimal reference to previous work. Details and discussions should not be included in the abstract, but may be put in the longer, written research paper (if required), or given on the project exhibit board. Finalists at the Intel ISEF are required to use the on-line system for submitting their abstract. Regional and local fairs use the Official Abstract Form (not necessary for most local fairs). In addition, abstracts must not include acknowledgments (such as referencing mentor or university laboratory).
    5 : Provides SRC a quick study of your project as it is an overview of the purpose, means, and result of research. Helps judges (both special and category) discern quickly whether the project qualifies for specific awards and whether the research is significant in its specific area. Informs visitors to ISEF (students, teachers, and the public at large) of the nature of the research. Review of Abstract’s Purpose
    6 : Steps in Developing Abstract Begin with a Research Project Prospectus to outline the research project. A prospectus helps the researcher identify the nature and scope of the investigation, research methods, and anticipated conclusions and/or applications. An example of such a prospectus follows:
    7 : Sample Research Project Prospectus
    8 : Once the research is completed and you are ready to show your project, use an Abstract Template to write a draft of the abstract. The following example was created using a table format in a Word document.
    9 : Sample Abstract Template
    10 : Explanation of Parts Purpose of the Experiment An introductory statement of the reason for investigating the topic of the project. A statement of the problem or hypothesis being studied. Procedures Used A summarization of the key points and an overview of how the investigation was conducted. An abstract does not give details about the materials used unless it greatly influenced the procedure or had to be developed to do the investigation. An abstract should only include procedures done by the student. Work done by a mentor (such as surgical procedures) or work done prior to student involvement must not be included. Observation/Data/Results This section should provide key results that lead directly to the conclusions you have drawn. It should not give too many details about the results nor include tables or graphs. Conclusions Conclusions from the investigation should be described briefly. The summary paragraph should reflect on the process and possibly state some applications and extensions of the investigation. An abstract does not include a bibliography unless specifically required by your local fair. The Intel ISEF requires the bibliography as part of the research plan to be provided on Form 1A.
    11 : Revise and edit the abstract in the template. Once you have filled in each section, you can easily copy and paste the final version into the abstract form online. Such a procedure avoids the need to retype the entire abstract, thereby reducing the chance of errors in the final version.
    12 : Sample Abstract
    13 : Other Examples Persistent Global Activation of the Aplysia Serotonergic System After Sensitizing Stimuli The marine mollusk Aplysia responds to noxious stimulation with a stereotyped arousal reaction that includes escape locomotion, increased heart rate and sensitization of defensive reflexes. Although previous studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT) is important for most of these behavioral responses, it is still unclear how the 5-HT system is activated in response to noxious stimuli. To address this question, I used a specific staining of the 5-HT neurons in the living central nervous system (CNS) that allowed me to (1) systematically record their electrical activity following a noxious stimulus, and (2) trace their projections using the neuronal tracer Neurobiotin. I found that in response to tail-nerve shock, a procedure known to mimic a noxious tail stimulus, the vast majority of 5-HT neurons increased their firing rate for several minutes and became more excitable. 5-HT neurons were found to project toward various peripheral targets such as the gill, heart, body wall, tail, siphon, head, and tentacles as well as to other ganglia in the CNS. This study shows that the Aplysia 5-HT system is globally and persistently activated after a noxious stimulus. Such an activation might serve to synchronize the different aspects of the arousal reaction in Aplysia.
    14 : Writing and Revising Tips Emphasize these aspects: purpose (hypothesis), methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations Focus only on the current year's research when it is a continuation project. Exclude any of the mentor or supervisor’s work Omit details and discussions Use the past tense to describe (However, where appropriate use active verbs rather than passive verbs.) Use short sentences, but vary sentence structure. Use complete sentences (Do not abbreviate by omitting articles or other small words in order to save space.) Avoid jargon Use appropriate scientific language Use concise syntax Use correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation Simply put, the style of an abstract should always be declarative not discursive.
    15 : Revision Techniques Addition – adding a word, phrase, or sentence Original: This project is an experimentation of the effects of two-cycle marine engine exhaust water on certain algae. Revised: This project is a bioassay experimentation of the effects of two-cycle marine engine exhaust water on certain green algae. Deletion – deleting a word, phrase, or sentence Original: The researcher has developed an original code required for successful implementation of the environment reconstruction application. Revised: The researcher developed an original code required for successful implementation of the environment reconstruction application.
    16 : Substitution – substituting one word, phrase, or sentence for another Original: In the beginning, the idea was to determine the toxicity of outboard engine lubricant. Revised: The initial idea was to determine the toxicity of outboard engine lubricant. Transposition – moving words, phrases, or sentences to another position Original: Using optical fibers as light guides, a system was created with light guided from a light source to an integrating chamber, reflected and guided back to a digital camera. Revised: A system using optical fibers as light guides was created with light guided from a light source to an integrating chamber, reflected, and then guided back to a digital camera.
    17 : Combination – combining sentences and/or paragraphs, which usually results in the use of multiple revision techniques and a considerable shortening of the passage. Original: The project was started with an investigation of methods in use today and possible alternatives. Two alternative methods that seemed to be promising were chosen — the first method is to kill bacteria with pulsing high voltage, and the second is boiling with high efficient heat exchanging. Revised: The project investigated two alternative methods in use today: 1) killing bacteria with pulsing high voltage; 2) boiling bacteria with a high efficient heat exchange.
    18 : Quiz: What techniques are used in revising this passage? Original: The purpose of my project is to find the connection between the ratio of radii of an ellipse and its mechanical advantage on specified angle of rotation intervals. Revision: This project examined the connection between the ratio of radii of an ellipse and the mechanical advantage of a specified angle of rotation intervals.
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