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    by: Amjad

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    1 : Medical Biochemistry Course Symbol: MDL-224 Level : 6th Dr. Amjad Ali Khan
    2 : Lecture 1 Metabolism Topics: Metabolism overview Major metabolic molecules Bioenergy and control of ATP
    3 : Metabolism Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: Anabolism and Catabolism
    4 : Catabolism Catabolism is the set of metabolic processes that break down large molecules. These include breaking down and oxidizing food molecules. The purpose of the catabolic reactions is to provide the energy and components needed by anabolic reactions.
    5 : In animals these reactions involve complex organic molecules being broken down to simpler molecules, such as carbon dioxide and water. The most common set of catabolic reactions in animals can be separated into three main stages. In the first, large organic molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides or lipids are digested into their smaller components outside cells. Next, these smaller molecules are taken up by cells and converted to yet smaller molecules, usually Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which releases some energy.
    6 : Finally, the acetyl group on the CoA is oxidised to water and carbon dioxide in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain. Citric acid cycle and Electron transport chain take place inside mitochondria, releasing the energy that is stored by reducing the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into NADH.
    7 : Digestion in stomach and intestine Outside cells Amino acids, monosaccharides, fatty acids etc. Different reactions Inside cells Acetyl CoA Kreb’s cycle Inside Mitochondria ADP ATP 1 2 3 FOOD
    8 : Summary of Catabolism Food Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Amino acids sugars Fatty acids Acetyl CoA DD DIGESTION
    9 : Acetyl CoA NAD+ NADH ADP ATP Oxidative phosphorylation Kreb’s cycle
    10 : Anabolism Anabolism is the set of constructive metabolic processes where the energy released by catabolism is used to synthesize complex molecules. In general, the complex molecules that make up cellular structures are constructed step-by-step from small and simple precursors.
    11 : Anabolism involves three basic stages. Firstly, the production of precursors such as amino acids, monosaccharides, isoprenoids and nucleotides. Secondly, their activation into reactive forms using energy from ATP, and thirdly, the assembly of these precursors into complex molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and nucleic acids.
    12 : Major metabolic molecules Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, in the digestion and use of food.
    13 : Many important biochemicals can be joined together to make polymers such as DNA and proteins. These macromolecules are essential.
    14 : Amino acids and proteins Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds. Many proteins are the enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as the proteins that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle.
    15 : Lipids Lipids are the most diverse group of biochemicals. Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules that will dissolve in organic solvents. The fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol; a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is a triacylglyceride.
    16 : Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are straight-chain aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups that can exist as straight chains or rings. Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). The basic carbohydrate units are called monosacch-arides and include galactose, fructose, and most importantly glucose. Monosaccharides can be linked together to form polysaccharides in almost limitless ways.
    17 : Nucleotides The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides, each nucleotide comprising a phosphate group, a ribose sugar group, and a nitrogenous base. Nucleic acids are critical for the storage and use of genetic information, through the processes of transcription and protein biosynthesis. The nitrogenous bases are heterocyclic rings containing nitrogen, classified as purines or pyrimidines. Nucleotides also act as coenzymes in metabolic group transfer reactions.
    18 : Co-enzyme Metabolism involves a vast array of chemical reactions, but most fall under a few basic types of reactions that involve the transfer of functional groups. This common chemistry allows cells to use a small set of metabolic intermediates to carry chemical groups between different reactions. These group-transfer intermediates are called coenzymes. These coenzymes are therefore continuously being made, consumed and then recycled.
    19 : Vitamins A vitamin is an organic compound needed in small quantities that cannot be made in the cells. In human nutrition, most vitamins function as coenzymes after modification. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a derivative of vitamin B3 (niacin), is an important coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen acceptor. Hundreds of different dehydrogenases remove electrons from their substrates and reduce NAD+ into NADH.
    20 : Vitamins This reduced form of the coenzyme is then a substrate for any of the reductases in the cell that need to reduce their substrates. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two related forms in the cell, NADH and NADPH. The NAD+/NADH form is more important in catabolic reactions, while NADP+/NADPH is used in anabolic reactions.
    21 : Adenosine triphosphate One central coenzyme is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy currency of cells. This nucleotide is used to transfer chemical energy between different chemical reactions. ATP acts as a bridge between catabolism and anabolism, with catabolic reactions generating ATP and anabolic reactions consuming it. It also serves as a carrier of phosphate groups in phosphorylation reactions.
    22 : Energy from organic compounds Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into smaller units. Carbohydrates are usually taken into cells once they have been digested into monosaccharides. Once inside, the major route of breakdown is glycolysis, where sugars such as glucose and fructose are converted into pyruvate and some ATP is generated. Pyruvate is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways, but the majority is converted to acetyl-CoA and fed into the citric acid cycle.
    23 : Energy from organic compounds Although some more ATP is generated in the citric acid cycle, the most important product is NADH, which is made from NAD+ as the acetyl-CoA is oxidized. Fats are catabolised by hydrolysis to free fatty acids and glycerol. The glycerol enters glycolysis and the fatty acids are broken down by beta oxidation to release acetyl-CoA, which then is fed into the citric acid cycle.
    24 : Energy from organic compounds Fatty acids release more energy upon oxidation than carbohydrates because carbohydrates contain more oxygen in their structures. Amino acids are either used to synthesize proteins and other biomolecules, or oxidized to urea and carbon dioxide as a source of energy. The oxidation pathway starts with the removal of the amino group by a transaminase.
    25 : Energy from organic compounds The amino group is fed into the urea cycle, leaving a deaminated carbon skeleton in the form of a keto acid. Several of these keto acids are intermediates in the citric acid cycle, for example the deamin-ation of glutamate forms a-ketoglutarate. The glucogenic amino acids can also be converted into glucose, through gluconeog-enesis .
    26 : Energy transformations Oxidative phosphorylation In oxidative phosphorylation, the electrons removed from molecules in citric acid cycle are transferred to oxygen and the energy released is used to make ATP. This is done in eukaryotes by a series of proteins in the membranes of mitochondria called the electron transport chain. In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy released from passing electrons from reduced molecules like NADH onto oxygen to pump protons across a membrane.
    27 : Energy transformations Pumping protons out of the mitochondria creates a proton concentration difference across the membrane and generates an electrochemical gradient. This force drives protons back into the mitochondrion through the base of an enzyme called ATP synthase. The flow of protons phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate - turning it into ATP.
    28 : Thank you

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