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    1 : Motivation Thinking About Motivation
    2 : Motivation is the process whereby goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained. Motivation
    3 : Goals are about where we want to be. which goals we set which goals we value and 3. which goals we keep working at. Goals are related to who we Want To Be. The Ideal Self One Part of the answer
    4 : Who students think they are affects what they want. Self-Efficacy (whether or not they are capable of achieving a goal) Things that effect self-efficacy: Mastery experiences Vicarious experience (models) Verbal persuasion The other part: The Actual Self
    5 : For many students there is a discrepancy between who they are and who they want to become… …it can be motivating if students think they can change. if they can make connections between the present and the future. …or devastating if students don’t think they can change if they are too focused on the present. Moving From the Actual to the Ideal
    6 : Future time perspective (FTP) is the degree to which and the way in which the chronological future is integrated into the present life-space of an individual through motivational goal-setting processes. Connecting Present to Future
    7 : Perceived instrumentality is an individual’s understanding of the instrumental value of a present behavior for future goals (Van Calster, Lens, & Nuttin, 1987). Connecting Present to Future
    8 : Beliefs about Ability! Incremental = Your ability changes over time Entity = Your ability is set at birth Why do students think they can or can’t change?
    9 : Beliefs about Ability lead to goal orientations. Incremental = Mastery Entity = Performance Why do students think they can or can’t change?
    10 : Mastery goal orientation (Good) Students are mostly concerned with mastering the task at hand Failure suggests areas for improvement – can be motivating. Mastery vs. Performance
    11 : Performance goal orientation (Bad) Students are mostly concerned with doing better than others Student fears that failure indicates something about their ABILITY to do the task. Mastery vs. Performance
    12 : Mastery is INTRINSICALLY motivating Intrinsic motivation: wanting to do something just because it is—in and of itself—enjoyable! Why would someone want to master the task?
    13 : Why are things enjoyable? Interest Competence Curiosity Relatedness Autonomy
    14 : Controlling rewards Threats and deadlines Evaluation and surveillance Thumb Rule: If someone else made you – it’s not intrinsic motivation – it’s EXTRINSIC motivation. What Hurts Intrinsic Motivation?
    15 : It’s EXTRINSIC What’s wrong with Extrinsic Motivation?
    16 : Application Essay Students need to make connections to their own lives. Students need to make those connections themselves. Group Essays Tuesday – lecture (1.5 hrs): Students write essay questions concerning the weeks set of readings. Thursday—Groupwork (1.5 hrs): Students assigned to 4-5 person groups, work together each week. I take students’ questions from Tuesday and construct 5 questions for Thursday group assignment. Each group completes an essay (of their choice), in collaboration. The essay AND collaborations are evaluated. How do I support student motivation through writing?
    17 : Thank You

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