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    Add as FriendMultidisciplinary Simulation-based Healthcare Education

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    1 : Multidisciplinary Simulation-based Healthcare Education Geoffrey T. Miller Associate Director, Research and Curriculum Development Division of Pehospital and Emergency Healthcare Gordon Center for Research in Medical Education University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
    2 : Session aims Discuss relevant opportunities for multidisciplinary training Discuss components necessary to plan and facilitate multidisciplinary training using simulation Discuss obstacles for multidisciplinary training and solutions to overcome these obstacles
    3 : What do we mean by “multidisciplinary” “A mixed cohort of learners in a common program?” or… “A team of healthcare providers that commonly work together?”
    4 : Team structure Multiple team system for patient care Patient Out-of-hospital Team ED Team Hospital Team Supporting Teams Administrative Teams Source: TeamSTEPPS™
    5 : Food for thought… and discussion Exercise 1: Lets take a few minutes and discuss some relevant examples that are well suited to multidisciplinary simulation-based healthcare education for teams of healthcare providers.
    6 : Multidisciplinary simulation opportunities Examples Code teams Rapid response teams Surgical cases Crisis resource management Patient safety problems Airway management Flight team training
    7 : “Any road will get you there, when you don’t know where you are going”
    8 : Multidisciplinary simulation-based healthcare education: The planning process
    9 : Formula for the effective use of simulation Training Resources Trained Educators Curricular Institutionalization X X = Effective Simulation- based Healthcare Education Issenberg, SB. The Scope of Simulation-based Healthcare Education. Simulation in Healthcare. 2006.
    10 : Multidisciplinary simulation development Analysis Define expected outcomes Design Development (new or mod of existing simulation) Implementation Evaluation
    11 : 1 - Analysis What and why should this be undertaken? Determine through: Needs assessments Quality assurance/quality management data Curricular requirements Focus groups, evaluations
    12 : Defining outcomes Learners are more likely to achieve competency and mastery of skills if the outcomes are well defined and appropriate for the level of skill training Define clear benchmarks for learners to achieve Plain goals with tangible, measurable objectives Start with the end-goal in mind and the assessment metrics, then the content will begin to develop itself
    14 : Miller’s Pyramid of Competence Learner: “Knows” – learns information “Knows How” - to use learned information “Shows” - how to use the information “Does” – performs in practice Instructor: “Knows” – content to be taught “Knows how” – to teach “Shows” – teaching is delivered “Does” – teaches effectively George E. Miller MD. The Assessment of Clinical Skills/Competence/Performance. Academic Medicine. 1990. Vol. 65 No. 9: S63-67.
    15 : 2 – Design: “agree on content” Choose curriculum content to ensure it address the learning outcomes. This will enable one to describe which core learning outcomes are addressed by specific content. Redundancies and omissions of content that address core competencies should be noted and modified.
    16 : 2 – Design: “organize the content” Develop the curriculum design to ensure a vertically integrated curriculum. There should be: a repetition of core topics, topics should be revisited at numerous levels of difficulty, new learning should be related to previous learning, and the competence of learners should increase with each exposure to a topic. When developing assessment it is important to ensure that learners are assessed based on the same schema or organization that is presented during their learning opportunities.
    17 : 2 – Design: “decide on the educational strategy” These include: student-centered vs. teacher-centered learning; problem-based / task-based learning vs. information oriented learning; integrated/interprofessional vs. subject / discipline-based; community-based vs. hospital-based learning; systematic vs. opportunistic
    18 : 2 – Design: “decide the appropriate teaching methods” An effective curriculum makes effective use of a range of teaching methods applying each method for the use to which it is most appropriate. These include: lectures; small-group sessions; independent study; clinical skills exercises. NOTE: simulations can be integrated into each of these areas.
    19 : Ranges of difficulty Learning is enhanced when a wide range of difficulty levels is employed Learners will have different “learning curves” Begin at the basic level, allow learner to demonstrate mastery, then proceed to progressively higher levels of difficulty
    20 : Alessi S. Design of Instructional Simulations. J Computer-based Instruction. 1988. 40-7. Effect of realism and initial learning
    21 : Tips for developing ranges of case difficulty Determine case/skill difficulty that is appropriate for the level level of the team Develop simulations that draw on prior learning and add additional knowledge and skill elements Example: Routine cardiac arrest management with “Code Team” Complicated cardiac arrest management problem Complicated problem with programmed challenges to team (i.e. equipment failure(s), expired meds on cart, etc.)
    22 : Validity In this case, validity means the degree of fidelity or “realism” the simulation provides as an approximation to complex clinical situations, principles or tasks. High validity is essential for learners to increase their visiospatial perceptual skills and sharpen their response to critical incidents “Face validity” relates to the “generalizability” of the simulation-based setting to the real patient setting
    23 : Tips for improving simulation validity Determine the appropriate level of “simulator” technology to accomplish the desired outcome Develop the appropriate levels of “simulation” fidelity around the simulator Low fidelity High technology Low fidelity Low technology High fidelity High technology High fidelity Low technology Fidelity Technology
    24 : 3 – Development: “prepare the assessment” What should be assessed? Every aspect of the curriculum that is considered essential and/or has had significant teaching time designated to it Should be consistent with the learning outcomes that have been established as they are the competencies students should master at the end of the course / phase of study
    25 : Assessments Should include assessment of: Knowledge – not only factual recall, but comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of cognitive knowledge Skills – communication, physical exam, informatics, self-learning, time management, problem-solving Attitudes – behavior, teamwork – key personal qualities thought necessary of a professional
    26 : Assessing team performance
    27 : Assessments Choose the appropriate assessment method: Formative Summative Self Peer
    28 : Simulations
    29 : 4 – Implementation: “define the teaching team” Learning activity Technicians Confederates Instructors Assessors Actors/SPs Facilitators Course Directors, SMEs, Authors NOTE: Multidisciplinary learner groups = multidisciplinary instructor groups
    30 : 4 – Implementation: “provide communication about the curriculum” Teachers have the responsibility to ensure that students have a clear understanding of: What they should be learning – the learning outcomes; The range of learning experiences and opportunities available; How and when they can access these most efficiently and effectively; How they can match the available learning experiences to their own needs; Whether they have mastered the topic or not, and if not, what further studies and experience are required.
    31 : 4 – Implementation: “promote appropriate educational environment” The educational environment or ‘climate’ is a key aspect of the curriculum Although it is less tangible than the content studied, or the teaching methods used or the examinations, it is just as important For example: there is little point in developing a curriculum whose aim is to orient a student to prehospital disaster preparedness, if the students perceive that what is valued by the faculty is routine prehospital healthcare rather than disaster preparedness.
    32 : 4 – Implementation: “provide effective curriculum management” This will ensure proper communication at multiple levels regarding different aspects of the curriculum Communication should occur between: faculty and the learners, so they are apprised of their performance in the course or assessment, between faculty members to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning opportunities or assessments
    33 : 5. Evaluation: “measure effectiveness” Evaluate Course Learners Instructors Effect on practice
    34 : Case study – Practical issues for integrating multidisciplinary terrorism response education into a disaster preparedness curriculum
    35 : ERT Subject matter experts Fire and emergency services providers Law enforcement agencies Hospital-based providers Emergency Medicine, Toxicologists, Trauma care experts State and Federal departments Army: Trauma Training Center (ATTC) Medical Research Institute for Chemical Defense (USAMRICD) Medical Department Center and School (AMEDDC&S) CRME faculty and the M.I.A.M.I. group
    36 : Model Program Emergency Response to Terrorism Training Multiple healthcare professionals Many learner levels Methods of delivery Lecture – case based Psychomotor skill exercises Small group Individual / independent learner Large group exercises Integration exercises – OSCEs
    37 : UM Course Design Day 1 Didactic Response Concepts Operations PPE Decontamination ICS / IMS Psychomotor PPE Medical Management Ambulatory DECON Incapacitated DECON Day 2 Didactic Chemical Agents Biological Agents Radiological and Explosive Agents Large Group Exercises Triage – computer-based Tabletop Integration Exercises OSCEs
    38 : Blueprinting
    39 : Case –Based Lecture Open-air concert 18,000 people Temp: 84° F Wind: ENE 12 knots Chemical weapon from a boat on shoreline
    40 : Plume throughout concert area Initially mistaken as smoke machine (part of show) Hundreds with symptoms within minutes Case –Based Lecture
    41 : Individual Self-learning
    42 : Small group instructor teaching
    43 : Large group exercise
    44 : Large group exercise – student directed
    45 : Video-based exercises 36-year-old male firefighter Pulse: 64 Respirations: 36 B/P: 80/P S/Sx: Short of breath Dim vision Constricted pupils Excessive secretions No medical history No allergies No medications Click on picture to start video
    46 : Computer-based learning
    47 : Assessment and feedback “the pointer-outer”
    48 : Measuring Effectiveness
    49 : Course effectiveness and cognitive improvement
    52 : Individual and team skills
    53 : Results
    54 : Future concerns
    55 : Some final thoughts Approach the development in a step-wise process that incorporates the ADDIE design elements Keep in mind the sometimes too much is “really” too much. Make sure that what you are doing is: Practical Feasible Standardized Reliable
    56 : Questions and discussion
    57 : For additional information: Geoffrey T. Miller

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