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No – naturally occurring toxins happen due to classical breeding efforts al

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1 : What Are Some of the Issues?
2 : No peer-reviewed food safety tests Creation of allergens or activation of toxins Pharma crops contaminate food supply Labeling Changes in nutritional content Gene flow from food to intestinal bacteria; increase in antibiotic resistance What are some food safety issues?
3 : No peer-reviewed food safety tests Creation of allergens or activation of toxins Pharma crops contaminate food supply Labeling Changes in nutritional content Gene flow from food to intestinal bacteria; increase in antibiotic resistance What are some food safety issues?
4 : Difficulties with food safety testing What to do and how to do it? “It is difficult if not impossible to test food safety of whole foods and feeds with animal tests. Despite what non-experts commonly think, animal tests are not the gold standard. Compositional analysis and toxicity testing of individual components is much more sensitive than whole foods testing.” “Nutritional and Safety Testing of Foods and Feeds Nutritionally Improved through Biotechnology” 2004. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, ILSI
5 : Example of animal safety test
6 : SOURCE: Flachowsky, G. 2007. Feeds from Genetically Engineered Plants - Results and Future Challenges. ISB News Report, March 2007, pp. 4-7. Experiments comparing first generation GE crops with isogenic counterparts
7 : No peer-reviewed food safety tests Creation of allergens or activation of toxins Pharma crops contaminate food supply Labeling Changes in nutritional content Gene flow from food to intestinal bacteria; increase in antibiotic resistance What are some food safety issues?
8 :
9 : Inadvertent Creation of Allergens and Toxins Is Toxin Creation Confined to GE Foods? No – naturally occurring toxins happen due to classical breeding efforts also, e.g., potato (glycoalkaloids) and celery (psoralens)
10 : Allergy Creation Confined to GE Foods? Classically bred foods can cause allergy problems too – Example: Kiwi Long-term Food Safety Studies: Should They Be Done, How and on What Foods?
11 : Fumonisin Reduction with Bt-maize 1989: High levels of fumonisin cause large-scale outbreaks of lethal lung edema in pigs, brain tumors in horses Fumonisin contamination caused by insect infestation 20- to 30-fold fumonisin reduction with Bt-maize Modified from Drew L. Kershen University of Oklahoma SOURCE; Hammond, B. et al., (Feb. 2004), Lower fumonisin mycotoxin levels in the grain of Bt-corn grown in the United States in 2000-2002, J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 1390-1397
12 : No peer-reviewed food safety tests Creation of allergens or activation of toxins Pharma crops contaminate food supply Labeling Changes in nutritional content Gene flow from food to intestinal bacteria; increase in antibiotic resistance What are some food safety issues?
13 : November 14, 2002 Biotech Firm Mishandled Corn in Iowa By Justin Gillis The biotechnology company that mishandled gene-altered corn in Nebraska did the same thing in Iowa, the government disclosed yesterday. Fearing that pollen from corn not approved for human consumption may have spread to nearby fields of ordinary corn, the U.S. Department of Agriculture ordered 155 acres of Iowa corn pulled up in September and incinerated. Production of pharmaceuticals in edible crops cause concern
14 : Planted soybeans in field previously used for testing transgenic corn. APHIS (USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) discovered "volunteer" corn plants growing among soybeans. Instructed ProdiGene to remove the corn plants. Soybeans harvested before all the corn was removed, mixed with 500,000 bushels of soybeans. Soybeans destroyed. In late 2002 ProdiGene ordered to pay $250,000 civil fines, reimbursement for lost crops, and $1 million higher regulatory fees.
15 : Crop inspection 7 times; 5 in growing season, 2 after harvest Field isolation distances increased Dedicated farm equipment required Permits required for industrial crops, like pharm crops USDA tightens rules on Pharm/Industrial Crops
16 : No peer-reviewed food safety tests Creation of allergens or activation of toxins Pharma crops contaminate food supply Labeling Changes in nutritional content Gene flow from food to intestinal bacteria; increase in antibiotic resistance What are some food safety issues?
17 : Why Doesn’t FDA Have a Labeling Policy for GM Foods? Actually it does… Foods produced through biotechnology are subject to same labeling laws as all other foods and food ingredients Govt-mandated label information relates to composition or food attributes not agricultural or manufacturing practices No label needed if food essentially equivalent in safety, composition and nutrition GM food labeled if: 1. Different nutritional characteristics, 2. Genetic material from known allergenic source e.g., peanut, egg 3. Elevated levels of antinutritional or toxic cmpds
18 : Why not just label? Putting a label on a whole food is relatively easy, but…
19 : Processed foods are different. Tomato sauce can contain 8 or more different varieties – each requires tracking to assure accurate content information.
20 : But there are foods that are tracked for consumer choice… like organic and…
21 : …Kosher For which people pay premium prices Should everyone pay a premium price for GE- free foods?
22 : Might another solution be to allow the creation of a specialty market for GE-free foods for which people pay a premium price and for which farmers are paid premium prices to grow them?
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