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    Add as FriendNon-Microbial Meat Spoilage

    by: priya

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    1 : Non-Microbial Meat Spoilage International Association of Food Protection July 11, 2007, Orlando, FL Daren Cornforth, PhD Nutrition & Food Sciences Utah State University Logan, Utah
    2 : What is “non-microbial meat spoilage? What’s the concern? Non-microbial spoilage = lipid and pigment oxidation (rancidity, pigment browning). Health hazard? - No. Quality & economic issue? Yes. Lipid oxidation limits shelf life & acceptability of pre-cooked meats; pizza toppings, taco meat - a $250 million / year industry. Antioxidants are essential. Discounts & Discards from pigment browning of fresh retail meats exceed $ 1 billion / year (Liu et al. 1995. J Animal Sci 73:3131-40).
    3 : Antioxidant Strategies Cooked Meats Cure with nitrite or related compounds. Add antioxidants (BHA/BHT), sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), milk mineral, phytate, spices, plums, raisin paste). Fresh Meats Add antioxidants Use anaerobic packaging
    4 : For cooked meat preservation, Nitrite is King! 3 functions in cured meat Pink Color Antioxidant Anti-microbial All benefits derive from NO-iron reactions
    5 : Nitrite is one of 3 sources of nitrous acid (HNO2) (Cornforth & Jayasingh, 2004. Encyclopedia of.Meat Sci 1:249-56)
    6 : What’s new with nitrite? Gas cure! - NO2 causes surface pinking of grilled meats (Cornforth, Rabovitser, et al., 1998. J Agric Food Chem 46:255-61) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the precursor compound. 2 NO2 + H2O ? HNO2 + HNO3
    7 : Nitrite inhibits oxidation and rancid flavor development) Panel score 1 = pronounced warmed over flavor (WOF), 5 = no WOF. Igene et al., 1979. J Agric Food Chem 27:838-42.
    8 : Iron Chelation by ethylenediaminetetraaceate (EDTA) inhibits oxidation, in heated solutions of pigment extract + washed beef muscle. Igene et al., 1979. J Agric Food Chem 27:838-42.
    9 :
    10 : Myoglobin (heme ring in red).
    11 : Deoxymyoglobin (Fe2+) Oxymyoglobin (Fe2+ – O2 ) – O2 –NO Nitric Oxide Myoglobin (Fe2+ – NO) Metmyoglobin (Fe3+)
    12 : King Nitrite has warts! (but is “natural”). N2O3 + Precursor to carcinogenic nitrosamines in high heat situations (fried bacon). Nitrous acid anhydride + Proline ? N-nitrosopyrrolidine + nitrous acid + CO2 (heat) ? + HNO2 + CO2 Nitrite occurs “naturally” in blood, derived from NO of white blood cells & sympathetic nerve endings (Green et al. 1981. Sci 212:56-8).
    13 : Solutions to prevent nitrosamine formation Current Bacon Regulations - reduce ingoing nitrite level to 120 ppm, + antioxidants C or E. New approach - “Natural” curing celery juice powder + sea salt, resulting in 40 - 60 ppm nitrate in product + 2% sugar + starter culture (converts nitrate to nitrite). Final nitrite concentration is much lower than traditional products (Sindelar, Cordray, et al. 2007. J Food Sci. 72:S324-32).
    14 : If Nitrite is King, Sodium Tripolyphosphate is the handsome Prince! STP is widely used in both cooked meats and fresh meats. Cooked meat uses - Moisture retention (higher yield after cooking), & antioxidant. Fresh meat uses - Primarily in the newly approved “enhanced” beef and pork for higher moisture retention and tenderness. Injected at 0.3% of meat weight. Vote, Platter, et al., 2005. J Animal Sci 78:952-7.
    15 : STP Antioxidant Mechanism - Iron Binding Iron stimulates lipid oxidation at both initiation and propagation steps. STP binds iron, preventing iron catalysis of lipid oxidation. (Allen & Cornforth, 2007. J Food Sci 72:C78 - 83).
    16 : Alternatives to STP in Cooked Meats (“Princesses in Waiting”). “Natural Phosphates” - Phytic Acid, Milk Mineral. Raisin Paste, Honey, Plums, or other fruit extracts added before Cooking. Spices or Spice extracts (Rosemary, Asian Spice blends (Chinese-5-Spice, Garam Masala).
    17 : Phytic acid lowers TBA values in cooked, minced chicken breast stored at 4°C. (Empson, Labuzza, Graf. 1991. J Food Sci 56-560-63).
    18 : Milk Mineral (MM) binds Iron Allen & Cornforth 2007. J Food Sci 72:C78-83. MM structure = hydroxyapatite (Corno et al 2006. Phys Chem Chem Phys 8:2464-72) Red = Phosphate; Green = Calcium or Iron.
    19 : Milk Mineral Characteristics (Tru-CalTM, Glanbia USA, Twin Falls, ID) White free-flowing powder (dried permeate of UF whey) Water insoluble 24% calcium, 39% phosphate, 10% lactose, 5% protein
    20 : TBA Value Comparison of MM & Nitrite in Meatballs (Vasavada & Cornforth, 2005. J Food Sci 70:C250-53).
    21 : Raisin Paste (& Glucose) are Antioxidants in Cooked Ground Beef held 14 days at 2° C. Vasavada & Cornforth, 2006. J Food Sci 71:C247-54.
    22 : Raisin Paste (& Glucose) are Antioxidants in Cooked Ground Chicken held 14 days at 2° C. Vasavada & Cornforth, 2006. J Food Sci 71:C247-54.
    23 : Raisin Effects on Flavor in Cooked Ground Beef
    24 : Raisin Effects on Flavor in Cooked Ground Chicken
    25 : Maillard Browning in Cooked Chicken
    26 : Do Asian spice blends have antioxidant properties in cooked meats? Chinese 5-spice Cinnamon Cloves Fennel (licorice flavor) Pepper Star Anise (licorice flavor) Garam Masala also has: Caraway (dill flavor) Cardamom (spicy) Chili Powder Coriander (spicy) Cumin (spicy) Ginger (mildly spicy) Nutmeg
    27 : Antioxidant Activity (TBA values) of Black Pepper, Caraway, Cardamom, & Chili in Cooked Ground Beef with Storage at 2°C.
    28 : Antioxidant activity of cinnamon, cloves, coriander, and cumin over time.
    29 : Antioxidant activity of fennel, ginger, nutmeg, & garam masala over time.
    30 : Antioxidant activity of star anise over time
    31 : Cloves had greatest antioxidant activity in cooked meats. Only cloves at 0.1% of meat wt maintained TBA values < 1.0 for 15 days storage at 2°C. All spices had some antioxidant activity.
    32 : Fresh Meats also Benefit from Antioxidants Fresh beef in 80% oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has 5-10 days longer red color stability than beef in PVC film over-wrap, but rancid flavors also increase. (Jayasingh & Cornforth, 2002. J Food Sci 67:3493-6).
    33 : Ground Beef Chubs In 80% O2-MAP had increased TBA values by Day 6 of Storage at 2°C Panel Score 9 = like extremely, 5 = neither like nor dislike, 1 = dislike extremely.
    34 : Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STP) & Milk Mineral (MM) ?TBA values and ? redness of ground beef in 80% O2-MAP after 14 days at 2°C. Vissa & Cornforth, 2006. J Food Sci 71:C65-8).
    35 : How does iron binding by STP or MM prevent meat pigment browning? Theory 1. Free iron stimulates lipid oxidation. Products of lipid oxidation (nonenal) cause myoglobin oxidation (Alderton et al. 2003. Biochem 42:4398-05. Theory 2. Free iron - O2 complexes directly catalyze myoglobin oxidation. Fe++ + O2 ? O-O-Fe ++ Mb-Fe ++ + O-O-Fe ++ ? Mb-Fe +++ + O2- + Fe ++ (Allen & Cornforth. 2006. J Agric Food Chem 54:10134-40). Both Pathways Probably Occur 1 = Ctrl MbO2, 2 = Ctrl + Fe, 3 = Ctrl + MM, 4 = Ctrl + STP Top = 1 hr; Bottom = 24 hr
    36 : Alternative to Antioxidants - Anaerobic Modified Atmosphere Packaging with 0.4% CO, 20-100% CO2, 0-80% N2. Permitted by USDA effective 7/29/04, with “use or freeze by” date of 28 days for ground beef. Data for ground chuck held 21 days at 2°C. John et al., 2004. J Food Sci 69:C608-14)
    37 : Conclusions - Which Antioxidant is Recommended? It Depends on Product. Cooked & Cured - Use Nitrite (by definition). Pre-Cooked Meats - Use STP, but new options are available (raisin or plum paste, spices, milk mineral, phytate (subject to USDA/FSIS approval). Fresh Meats - Use antioxidants such as Rosemary extract, MM, or anaerobic modified atmosphere packaging with CO.

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