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    ONION DEHYDRATION WITH GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE USA

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    1 : ONION DEHYDRATION WITH GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN THE USA John W. Lund Andrew Chiasson, Toni Boyd Geo-Heat Center Oregon Institute of Technology Klamath Falls, OR, USA
    2 : PROCESSING Creoloe, Southport Globe and Hybrid Southport types used White in color and process a higher solid content which yields a more flavorful and pungent onion Continuous belt conveyor used Proctor & Schwartz dehydrator single line Special silica gel – Bryair desiccation often used for the final drying $1,500,000/yr in fuel used (180 days) Geothermal saves 116 million cubic feet of NG
    3 : Basic dehydration operation
    4 : PROCESSING 2 Dehydration – basic steps Harvesting Transporting Curing - 100oF heated air used – ease of peeling and processing – 48 to 72 hours Washing and chlorinated to reduce bacteria Slicing Dehydration – in 3 to 4 stages – high air volumes Milling (powdered, granulated, ground, minced, chopped or sliced) Packaging
    5 : AGRICULTURAL DRYING 1 Two large geothermal onion and garlic dehydrators are located in NW Nevada These units can each process 5 - 7 tons of wet onions/hr – drying them from 83% to 4% moisture (output = 0.9 – 1.2 tons/hr dried product) 0.15 therms/lb used = 500 million Btu/day or 76 billion Btu/yr (22 GWh) (150 days period) Product used in soups, baked goods, salt, & seasoning as powders to slices
    6 : AGRICULTURAL DRYING 2 Single-line, continuous-belt dryer use 12.5 ft wide 190 to 212 ft. long 3 to 4 sections (A to D) –210 to 120oF Processing 5 to 7 tons/hr of wet onions Using 86,500 ft3/hr of air 26 million Btu/hr Onions 2 inches to 6 feet deep Bryair desiccation unit required in final stage
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    9 : AGRICULTURAL DRYING 3 Brady’s Hot Spring plant – first in U.S. - 1978 270oF geothermal fluid Only has 3 stages (A thru C) 6-months operation season - 65 employees 25,000 tons of wet onions are processed during season – producing 5,000 tons of dry product 190-ft. long dryer by 12.5 ft. wide Uses 190 to 120oF air in various stages Has also processed celery and carrots to extend season Product trucked from S. California to S. Oregon (300 to 600 miles)
    10 : AGRICULTURAL DRYING 4 Empire Foods plant – constructed 1994 Capacity 37 tons/day onions; 42.5 tons/day garlic 7 tons/yr (60% onions and 40% garlic) 900 gpm of geothermal fluid @ 266oF 45 million Btu/hr – discharge at 160oF Cold storage warehouse allows year-round operation – 2nd line being considered Geothermal energy also used for four ORMAT 1.5-MWe binary units – net output 3.6 MWe Now shut down due to garlic imports from China
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    13 : Empire 6.0 MWe binary plants (3.6 MWe net)
    14 : CONCLUSIONS 1 A survey in the U.S. found that of 108 industrial processes surveyed (representing 80% of U.S. industrial energy usage), 97% of all processes required heat input in the form of steam at 250oF or higher. An examination of geothermal wells in 8 western U.S. states reveals that 99% are 250oF or less. High load factor important (0.44 to 0.68 in 2000) Wells above 250oF would normally be used for electric power generation, however ---- * source: K. Rafferty, GHC Bulletin Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sept., 2003)
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    17 : CONCLUSION 2 Consider: Power plant vs dehydration plant Assumptions 300oF resource 20 MW net binary power plant US$0.07 per kWh power sales price 10-month dehydration operation 15,000 tons annual production (2 lines) US$1.00/lb dried product wholesale price
    18 : CONCLUSIONS 3 Power plant vs dehydration plant Power Dehydration plant plant Capital Expenditure $50 mill. $15 mill. Gross Revenue $11 mill. $30 mill. Resource require. 12,000 gpm 1,200 gpm Employees 15 75 *source: D. Mendive, Geothermal Development Assoc., Reno, NV
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    20 : RESOURCE EVALUATION Initial search of data base Ontario, Lancaster, Vale, Nyssa , Harper and Adrain 42 by 36 mile area 9 springs 270 wells identified 68 to 239oF – high temp. at Vale Most below 200oF One “dry well” – 10,052 ft at 334oF - Ontario
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    22 : PROPOSED SCOPE OF WORK Determine source and market of product Estimate size of development Determine temperature and flow rate needed Review literature and determine resource available to meet requirements Recommend site(s) for resource (well) Perform economic analysis Make recommendation(s) Write final report
    23 : THANK YOU
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