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    Add as FriendPediatric Sports and Recreation Injuries

    by: Rogers

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    1 : Pediatric Sports and Recreation Injuries Terry A. Adirim, MD, MPH Washington, DC
    2 : Pediatric Sports Injuries The Score The epidemiology of sports injuries in children Children are Not Little Adults Differences in physiology and development Sports Concussions The latest in assessment and management of mTBI Pop Warner is Hurt--Sport Specific Injuries Evaluation and management of the child athlete Return to play Learning Objectives
    3 : Pediatric Sports Injuries Benefits Physical Fitness Motor development Learn New Skills Improve Skills To Make Friends Build Self-Esteem Have Fun
    4 : Epidemiology Injury Surveillance Reliable data lacking 40 million people > age 6 participate in organized sports 2.6 million ED visits related to sports Ages 5-24 5x ED visits is estimated to be # injuries related to sports Under age 10, most injuries are secondary to recreational activities rather than organized sports
    5 : High School Sports with Highest Injury Rates Football--boys Cross Country--girls Body Part Most Likely Injured Ankle Knee Wrist, hand, elbow Shin, calf Thigh, Groin Head, Neck, Clavicle Epidemiology
    6 : Epidemiology Catastrophic Injuries Most common non-traumatic death in sports is cardiovascular (e.g. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) Among H.S. athletes, 90% of traumatic deaths involved head, neck Football historically the sport with the most fatal traumatic deaths
    7 : Developmental and Physiological Differences Between Child and Adult Athletes
    8 : Development Differences in musculoskeletal system Pediatric bone has a higher water content and lower mineral content less brittle than adult bone Thick periosteum in children Rich blood supply in pediatric bone The physis (growth plate) cartilaginous structure that is weaker than bone predisposed to injury
    9 : Development Ligaments in children are functionally stronger than bone; therefore children are more likely to sustain fractures rather than sprains Pearl
    10 : Development Most commonly fractured bone in children: Clavicle Younger children fracture upper extremities As children get older, more risk for lower extremity fractures Closed reductions of fractures more common in children
    11 : Development Greenstick fracture Torus fracture
    12 : Development The Physis Salter-Harris Classification of Fractures High risk for growth arrest
    13 : Development Pearl If a child is tender over her physis, but x-ray appears “negative” for fracture, splint and have child follow-up with sports medicine physician or orthopedist.
    14 : Development CRIMeTOLE Capitellum Radius Internal (medial) epicondyle Trochlea Olecranon External (lateral) epicondyle Ossification Centers of the Elbow
    15 : Development Supracondylar fractures of the Humerus Most common mechanism--fall onto outstretched hand 98% are extension type Seen in 3-11 year olds Gartland Classification Type I—non-displaced Type II—displaced with intact posterior cortex Type III—complete displacement; usually posteromedial or posterolateral
    16 : Development pearl Check for posterior fat pad in child with swollen elbow Type II Supracondylar fracture
    17 : Development Type III Supracondylar Fracture Pitfall Children with type II and III need immediate referral/transfer to pediatric orthopedist
    18 : Development Apophyses Are growth plates that add shape and contour rather than length to a bone. Are often sites of muscle attachment Avulsions at the apophysis are not uncommon in older children and adolescents Diagnosis by x-ray Conservative management
    19 : Development Common Overuse Injuries in Children Traction Apophysitis Sever’s Disease (age 8-12) Osteochondrosis of the heel Osgood-Schlatters (age 11-15) Apophysitis of the tibial tubericle Sinding-Larsen Johansson (age 10-15) Apophysitis of the inferior pole of the patella Little League Elbow (age 10-15) Apophysitis of the medial epicondyle of the elbow Treatment = relative rest & strengthening
    20 : Sever’s Disease
    21 : Osgood Schlatter’s Avulsion of tibial tubericle
    22 : Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Distal pole of patella
    23 : Little League Elbow Medial epicondyle
    24 : Specific Sports and Their Injuries
    25 : Soccer Ankle sprains Bruises ACL Injuries Mechanism of injury is plant and twist of knee Usually non-contact Higher incidence in girls Knee effusion common
    26 : Soccer ACL Injuries Diagnosis can be made clinically on examination with Lachman’s test
    27 : Soccer ACL Injuries Anterior Drawer
    28 : Soccer ACL injuries Radiography in the ED AP/Lateral x-rays Look for tibial plateau fractures ACL is soft tissue so may not have radiologic findings
    29 : Soccer ACL Injuries Best to allow sports medicine consultant or orthopedist to order MRIs MRIs are performed to rule out associated injuries such as meniscal tears
    30 : Football Head and Neck Acromioclavicular Sprains Stingers, Burners Finger injuries Jersey finger Mallet finger
    31 : Mechanism of C-Spine Injury C-Spine straight with axial loading on top of head
    32 : Football
    33 : Football Acromioclavicular Sprains (“AC Sprains”) Mechanism is direct hit to top of shoulder Point tenderness at AC joint Clavicle Acromion Rx: Ice, Anti-inflammatories, active rest
    34 : Football Burners, Stingers Stretch or compression of the brachial plexus Sudden pain, tingling radiating from neck to fingers Typically transient Tx = ROM, strengthening, protective gear (e.g. neck roll, cowboy collar)
    35 : Football Finger Injuries “Jersey finger”—injury to flexor digitalis profundus (FDP) FDP causes flexion of the DIP joints Occurs during tackling in football History of failure to grab an object (e.g., football jersey or car door handle) Painful, swollen finger, especially at the volar DIPJ Ring finger commonly involved
    36 : Football Finger Injuries—”Jersey Finger” Inability to flex at the DIPJ PIPJ and MCPJ flexion preserved Radiographs (AP, lateral, oblique) to assess for tendinous rupture or bony avulsion fracture Splint finger in comfortable position; refer to hand surgeon as soon as possible.
    37 : Football Mallet Finger Flexion deformity of the DIPJ Painful, swollen fingertip May have occurred when trying to catch a ball Inability to extend the distal phalanx at the DIPJ Radiographs (AP, lateral, oblique) Two forms of mallet finger: Tendinous--extensor tendon rupture Bony--bony avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx
    38 : Football Mallet Finger Treatment Continuous splinting 6 to 8 weeks DIPJ must not be allowed to drop in flexion Bony avulsions < 1/3 of articular surface can be reduced with dorsal pressure and dorsal splinting - 6 to 8 weeks. Post-reduction radiographs are essential Refer failed non-surgical treatment, bony avulsions that are irreducible or involve 1/3 or more of the articular surface, or volar subluxation of the distal phalanx
    39 : Baseball/Softball Elbow Injuries Little league elbow (age 10-15) Apophysitis of the medial epicondyle Overuse injury secondary to throwing mechanics Tender directly over the medial aspect of elbow Will often elicit a history of child pitching “too many” innings or “too many” pitches per week (> 200) Need to differentiate Little league elbow from Panner’s disease and OCD
    40 : Baseball/Softball Panner’s Disease (< age 12) Avascular necrosis of the capitellum of the humerus Affects mostly boys Common symptoms Pain and stiffness restricted extension motion of the elbow local tenderness over the capitellum
    41 : Baseball/Softball Panner’s Disease Usually resolves on own Need to differentiate between this and OCD (MRI)
    42 : Baseball/Softball Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) usually affects adolescents and young adults involves separation of a segment of cartilage and subchondral bone The area most frequently affected is the anterolateral surface of the humeral capitellum
    43 : Baseball/Softball Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) Dx: initial radiographs, MRI for staging, loose body Rx: Rest, refer to sports medicine specialist
    44 : Basketball ACL injuries Patellar tendonitis (“Jumper’s knee”) Ankle sprains very commonly injured joint Most common is lateral ankle sprains In child with open physis, if tender over lateral malleolus, then splint and refer for follow-up
    45 : Basketball Lateral ankle sprains Mechanism is inversion, plantar flexed
    46 : Basketball ”High ankle sprain” Syndesmosis injury ligament between tibia and fibula tears Mechanism is outward twisting of ankle
    47 : Basketball Syndesmosis Injury Associated injury—maisonneuve fracture Radiographs: AP, Lateral and Mortise views Treatment Most of the time surgery necessary Refer to orthopedist Proximal tibia fracture
    48 : Gymnastics Back Injuries Spondylolysis stress fracture or defect of the pars interarticularis in a vertebra due to repetitive increase in shear forces in the lumbar spine Spondylolisthesis movements of extension and rotation leading to slipping of all or part of one vertebra forward on another slippage occurs as a result of repetitive hyperextension which causes a shear stress at the pars interarticularis.
    49 : Gymnastics Symptoms include: Insidious onset Pain with hyperextension (e.g. back walkover) Initially pain with sports, then increases to pain with ADLs and progressing to pain interfering with sleep A hyperlordotic (increased curvature, not scoliotic) lower back Relative tightness of the hamstring muscles.
    50 : Gymnastics Spondylolysis Spondylolisthesis
    51 : Gymnastics Diagnosis X-rays: AP, Lateral and oblique If neg., CT, spect scan or MRI Treatment Rest, analgesics Referral to orthopedist
    52 : Gymnastics Pearl Back pain in children less than 18 is always pathologic until proven otherwise
    53 : Pediatric Sports Injuries: General management principles for treatment of sports medicine injuries in the ED/Office: Ice is a sports medicine drug—use liberally When in doubt, immobilize, consult Best to have athlete rest until reevaluated Refer child and adolescent athletes to sports medicine specialists
    54 : Pediatric Sports Injury Sources

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