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    by: AJ21

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    1 : RATIO ANALYSIS
    2 : WHY FINANCIAL ANALYSIS Lenders’ need it for carrying out the following Technical Appraisal Commercial Appraisal Financial Appraisal Economic Appraisal Management Appraisal
    3 : Ratio Analysis It’s a tool which enables the banker or lender to arrive at the following factors : Liquidity position Profitability Solvency Financial Stability Quality of the Management Safety & Security of the loans & advances to be or already been provided
    4 : Meaning of Ratio Analysis Ratio is a mathematical relationship between two financial data having cause and effect relationship.
    5 : Essential of Ratio Analysis At least two data Financial Data Mathematical Relationship Cause and Effect relationship
    6 : How a Ratio is expressed? As Percentage - such as 25% or 50% . For example if net profit is Rs.25,000/- and the sales is Rs.1,00,000/- then the net profit can be said to be 25% of the sales. As Proportion - The above figures may be expressed in terms of the relationship between net profit to sales as 1 : 4. As Pure Number /Times - The same can also be expressed in an alternatively way such as the sale is 4 times of the net profit or profit is 1/4th of the sales.
    7 : Classification of Ratios
    8 : Format of balance sheet for ratio analysis
    9 : Some important notes Liabilities have Credit balance and Assets have Debit balance Current Liabilities are those which have either become due for payment or shall fall due for payment within 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet Current Assets are those which undergo change in their shape/form within 12 months. These are also called Working Capital or Gross Working Capital
    10 : Net Worth & Long Term Liabilities are also called Long Term Sources of Funds Current Liabilities are known as Short Term Sources of Funds Long Term Liabilities & Short Term Liabilities are also called Outside Liabilities Current Assets are Short Term Use of Funds
    11 : Some important notes Assets other than Current Assets are Long Term Use of Funds Installments of Term Loan Payable in 12 months are to be taken as Current Liability only for Calculation of Current Ratio & Quick Ratio. If there is profit it shall become part of Net Worth under the head Reserves and if there is loss it will become part of Intangible Assets
    12 : Investments in Govt. Securities to be treated current only if these are marketable and due. Investments in other firms/financial institute/market/banks for long-term to be treated as Non-current.
    13 : Classification of Ratios Liquidity Ratio Profitability Ratio Working Efficiency Ratio Solvency Ratio Debt Service Ratio Investment Analysis Ratio
    14 : LIQUIDITY RATIO
    15 : LIQUIDITY RATIO It is essential for a business entity to maintain sufficient liquidity For smooth functioning To satisfy credit provider To meet with current obligation To know about firm’s short- term financial position
    16 : Current Ratio Net Working Capital Acid Test or Quick ratio Absolute Liquidity Ratio
    17 : Current Ratio : It is the relationship between the current assets and current liabilities of a concern. Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities If the Current Assets and Current Liabilities of a concern are Rs.4,00,000 and Rs.2,00,000 respectively, then the Current Ratio will be : Rs.4,00,000/Rs.2,00,000 = 2 : 1 The ideal Current Ratio preferred by Banks is 1.33 : 1
    18 : Interpretation This ratio is an indicator of the firm’s commitment to meet its short-term liabilities. If the ratio is more than 1 it suggest that suggest the current assets are adequate to pay off all current liabilities. If the ratio is 1, they are just sufficient. If the ratio is less than 1, a company shall be unable to pay current dues when asked
    19 : Net Working Capital : This is worked out as surplus of Long Term Sources over Long Tern Uses, alternatively it is the difference of Current Assets and Current Liabilities. NWC = Current Assets – Current Liabilities
    20 : Interpretation From the financial management point of view the amount of net working capital is the most reliable measure to judge the sound liquidity position of a firm.
    21 : 3. ACID TEST or QUICK RATIO : It is the ratio between Quick Current Assets and Current Liabilities. Quick Current Assets : Cash/Bank Balances + Receivables upto 6 months + Quickly realizable securities such as Govt. Securities or quickly marketable securities and Bank Fixed Deposits Like – Treasury bills
    22 : Interpretation This ratio shows that a firm must have at least as much liquid assets as its current obligations so that it will have no difficulty in paying those obligations.
    23 : Acid Test or Quick Ratio = Quick Current Assets/Current Liabilities Example : Cash 50,000 Debtors 1,00,000 Inventories 1,50,000 Current Liabilities 1,00,000 Total Current Assets 3,00,000 Current Ratio = > 3,00,000/1,00,000 = 3 : 1 Quick Ratio = > 1,50,000/1,00,000 = 1.5 : 1
    24 : 4. Absolute Liquidity Ratio This ratio is used to know the instant solvency. Cash in hand, cash at bank, short term marketable securities Super Quick Asset Absolute Liquidity Ratio= current liabilities
    25 : Interpretation This ratio is used to know whether the company will be or will not be capable of paying them instantly.
    26 : SOLVENCY RATIO/ CAPITAL STRUCTURE RATIO
    27 : Debt-equity Ratio Proprietor Ratio Solvency ratio Capital Gearing Ratio
    28 : Objective Whether the borrower business entity will be in a position of to repay loans on or before their due dates of payment or not. Whether the borrower business entity will be able to timely pay the loan instalments including interest on loan.
    29 : DEBT EQUITY RATIO : It is the relationship between borrower’s fund (Debt) and Owner’s Capital (Equity). Long Term Outside Liabilities / Tangible Net Worth Liabilities of Long Term Nature Total of Capital and Reserves & Surplus Less Intangible Assets
    30 : For instance, if the Firm is having the following : Capital = Rs. 200 Lacs Free Reserves & Surplus = Rs. 300 Lacs Long Term Loans/Liabilities = Rs. 800 Lacs Debt Equity Ratio will be => 800/500 i.e. 1.6 : 1
    31 : It determines the extend of assets on which the charge is in the hand of lenders.
    32 : PROPRIETARY RATIO This ratio indicates the extent to which Tangible Assets are financed by Owner’s Fund. Proprietary Ratio = (Tangible Net Worth/Total Tangible Assets) x 100 The ratio will be 100% when there is no Borrowing for purchasing of Assets.
    33 : The higher proprietors ratio indicates the high cushion for long-term solvency. On the other hand low ratio indicates that the problem may be faced by the level of management to satisfy the obligation of interest and principals payable to long-term lenders due to low solvency cashion.
    34 : Capital Gearing Ratio variable cost bearing capital Capital gearing ratio= fixed cost bearing capital
    35 : Higher capital gearing ratio indicates the better chance for higher dividend on equity shares, as it keeps the financial risk limited and hence wins the confidence of investors and vice –versa.
    36 : Solvency Ratio This ratio is a measure of solvency to infer about the chances of legal bankruptcy of business entity. total liabilities Solvency ratio= Total Assets
    37 : Less than 1 solvency ratio indicates the good position of solvency of business entity.
    38 : PROFITABILITIES RATIO
    39 : GROSS PROFIT RATIO NET PROFIT RATIO OPERATING PROFIT RATIO
    40 : 6. GROSS PROFIT RATIO : By comparing Gross Profit percentage to Net Sales we can arrive at the Gross Profit Ratio which indicates the manufacturing efficiency as well as the pricing policy of the concern. Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit / Net Sales ) x 100
    41 : This ratio shows the profit that remains after the manufacturing costs have been met. It measures the efficiency of production as well as pricing.
    42 : 7. OPERATING PROFIT RATIO : It is expressed as => (Operating Profit / Net Sales ) x 100 Higher the ratio indicates operational efficiency
    43 : The operating efficiency of an industrial or a trading entity can be determined on the basis of this ratio.
    44 : NET PROFIT RATIO : It is expressed as => ( Net Profit / Net Sales ) x 100 It measures overall profitability.
    45 : This ratio is calculated for the measurement of managerial performance.
    46 : PROFITABILITY RATIO ( BASED ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED)
    47 : RETRUN ON ASSETS RETRUN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED RETRUN ON EQUITY CAPITAL (ROE)
    48 : It measures the overall efficiency of production, administration, selling, financing, pricing and tax management. Jointly considered, the gross and net profit margin ratios provide an understanding of the cost and profit structure of a firm.
    49 : 15. RETRUN ON ASSETS : Net Profit after Taxes/Total Assets
    50 : 16. RETRUN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED ( Net Profit before Interest & Tax / Average Capital Employed) x 100 Average Capital Employed is the average of the equity share capital and long term funds provided by the owners and the creditors of the firm at the beginning and end of the accounting period.
    51 : ROCE is calculated to ascertain various points Measurement of Managerial Efficiency Comparison of profitability of two business entity The measurement of Overall Profitability Decision for New Investment Decision of Raising Long-term Loans Effective Technique of Management Control
    52 : 17. RETRUN ON EQUITY CAPITAL (ROE) : Net Profit after Taxes / Tangible Net Worth
    53 : This ratio indicates the return for true owners of the company after satisfying the claims all other parties against the company.
    54 : Activity / Efficiency Ratio
    55 : Activity / Efficiency Ratio To know or to ascertain the efficiency of resources used efficiency ratios are calculated. With these ratios the number of cycle or turnover of respective resources can be obtained.
    56 : EARNING PER SHARE PRICE EARNING RATIO CREDITORS TURNOVER RATIO ASSET TRUNOVER RATIO FIXED ASSET TURNOVER RATIO CURRENT ASSET TURNOVER RATIO
    57 : . STOCK/INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO : (Average Inventory/Sales) x 365 for days (Average Inventory/Sales) x 52 for weeks (Average Inventory/Sales) x 12 for months Average Inventory or Stocks = (Opening Stock + Closing Stock) ----------------------------------------- 2
    58 : This ratio indicates the number of times the inventory is rotated during the relevant accounting period
    59 : 10. DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO : This is also called Debtors Velocity or Average Collection Period or Period of Credit given . (Average Debtors/Sales ) x 365 for days (52 for weeks & 12 for months)
    60 : With the help of debtors turnover ratio, it is determined that number of times in a year the money is being received from the debtors and whether the period of collection from debtors is within the permitted credit policy.
    61 : 11. ASSET TRUNOVER RATIO : Net Sales/Tangible Assets 12. FIXED ASSET TURNOVER RATIO : Net Sales /Fixed Assets 13. CURRENT ASSET TURNOVER RATIO : Net Sales / Current Assets
    62 : These ratios are a measure to determine the managerial efficiency of the concerned business entity.
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