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    by: Ravi

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    1 : RATIO ANALYSIS Ravi kr keshri Presented By ISBM Gurgaon
    2 : WHY FINANCIAL ANALYSIS Lenders’ need it for carrying out the following Technical Appraisal Commercial Appraisal Financial Appraisal Economic Appraisal Management Appraisal
    3 : Ratio Analysis It’s a tool which enables the banker or lender to arrive at the following factors : Liquidity position Profitability Solvency Financial Stability Quality of the Management Safety & Security of the loans & advances to be or already been provided
    4 : How a Ratio is expressed? As Percentage - such as 25% or 50% . For example if net profit is Rs.25,000/- and the sales is Rs.1,00,000/- then the net profit can be said to be 25% of the sales. As Proportion - The above figures may be expressed in terms of the relationship between net profit to sales as 1 : 4. As Pure Number /Times - The same can also be expressed in an alternatively way such as the sale is 4 times of the net profit or profit is 1/4th of the sales.
    5 : Classification of Ratios
    6 : Format of balance sheet for ratio analysis
    7 : Some important notes Liabilities have Credit balance and Assets have Debit balance Current Liabilities are those which have either become due for payment or shall fall due for payment within 12 months from the date of Balance Sheet Current Assets are those which undergo change in their shape/form within 12 months. These are also called Working Capital or Gross Working Capital Net Worth & Long Term Liabilities are also called Long Term Sources of Funds Current Liabilities are known as Short Term Sources of Funds Long Term Liabilities & Short Term Liabilities are also called Outside Liabilities Current Assets are Short Term Use of Funds
    8 : Some important notes Assets other than Current Assets are Long Term Use of Funds Installments of Term Loan Payable in 12 months are to be taken as Current Liability only for Calculation of Current Ratio & Quick Ratio. If there is profit it shall become part of Net Worth under the head Reserves and if there is loss it will become part of Intangible Assets Investments in Govt. Securities to be treated current only if these are marketable and due. Investments in other securities are to be treated Current if they are quoted. Investments in allied/associate/sister units or firms to be treated as Non-current. Bonus Shares as issued by capitalization of General reserves and as such do not affect the Net Worth. With Rights Issue, change takes place in Net Worth and Current Ratio.
    9 : Current Ratio : It is the relationship between the current assets and current liabilities of a concern. Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities If the Current Assets and Current Liabilities of a concern are Rs.4,00,000 and Rs.2,00,000 respectively, then the Current Ratio will be : Rs.4,00,000/Rs.2,00,000 = 2 : 1 The ideal Current Ratio preferred by Banks is 1.33 : 1 Net Working Capital : This is worked out as surplus of Long Term Sources over Long Tern Uses, alternatively it is the difference of Current Assets and Current Liabilities. NWC = Current Assets – Current Liabilities
    10 : 3. ACID TEST or QUICK RATIO : It is the ratio between Quick Current Assets and Current Liabilities. Quick Current Assets : Cash/Bank Balances + Receivables upto 6 months + Quickly realizable securities such as Govt. Securities or quickly marketable/quoted shares and Bank Fixed Deposits Acid Test or Quick Ratio = Quick Current Assets/Current Liabilities Example : Cash 50,000 Debtors 1,00,000 Inventories 1,50,000 Current Liabilities 1,00,000 Total Current Assets 3,00,000 Current Ratio = > 3,00,000/1,00,000 = 3 : 1 Quick Ratio = > 1,50,000/1,00,000 = 1.5 : 1
    11 : DEBT EQUITY RATIO : It is the relationship between borrower’s fund (Debt) and Owner’s Capital (Equity). Long Term Outside Liabilities / Tangible Net Worth Liabilities of Long Term Nature Total of Capital and Reserves & Surplus Less Intangible Assets For instance, if the Firm is having the following : Capital = Rs. 200 Lacs Free Reserves & Surplus = Rs. 300 Lacs Long Term Loans/Liabilities = Rs. 800 Lacs Debt Equity Ratio will be => 800/500 i.e. 1.6 : 1
    12 : 5. PROPRIETARY RATIO : This ratio indicates the extent to which Tangible Assets are financed by Owner’s Fund. Proprietary Ratio = (Tangible Net Worth/Total Tangible Assets) x 100 The ratio will be 100% when there is no Borrowing for purchasing of Assets. 6. GROSS PROFIT RATIO : By comparing Gross Profit percentage to Net Sales we can arrive at the Gross Profit Ratio which indicates the manufacturing efficiency as well as the pricing policy of the concern. Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit / Net Sales ) x 100 Alternatively , since Gross Profit is equal to Sales minus Cost of Goods Sold, it can also be interpreted as below : Gross Profit Ratio = [ (Sales – Cost of goods sold)/ Net Sales] x 100 A higher Gross Profit Ratio indicates efficiency in production of the unit.
    13 : 7. OPERATING PROFIT RATIO : It is expressed as => (Operating Profit / Net Sales ) x 100 Higher the ratio indicates operational efficiency NET PROFIT RATIO : It is expressed as => ( Net Profit / Net Sales ) x 100 It measures overall profitability.
    14 : 9. STOCK/INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO : (Average Inventory/Sales) x 365 for days (Average Inventory/Sales) x 52 for weeks (Average Inventory/Sales) x 12 for months Average Inventory or Stocks = (Opening Stock + Closing Stock) ----------------------------------------- 2 . This ratio indicates the number of times the inventory is rotated during the relevant accounting period
    15 : 10. DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO : This is also called Debtors Velocity or Average Collection Period or Period of Credit given . (Average Debtors/Sales ) x 365 for days (52 for weeks & 12 for months) 11. ASSET TRUNOVER RATIO : Net Sales/Tangible Assets 12. FIXED ASSET TURNOVER RATIO : Net Sales /Fixed Assets 13. CURRENT ASSET TURNOVER RATIO : Net Sales / Current Assets 14. CREDITORS TURNOVER RATIO : This is also called Creditors Velocity Ratio, which determines the creditor payment period. (Average Creditors/Purchases)x365 for days (52 for weeks & 12 for months)
    16 : 15. RETRUN ON ASSETS : Net Profit after Taxes/Total Assets 16. RETRUN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED : ( Net Profit before Interest & Tax / Average Capital Employed) x 100 Average Capital Employed is the average of the equity share capital and long term funds provided by the owners and the creditors of the firm at the beginning and end of the accounting period.
    17 : Composite Ratio 17. RETRUN ON EQUITY CAPITAL (ROE) : Net Profit after Taxes / Tangible Net Worth EARNING PER SHARE : EPS indicates the quantum of net profit of the year that would be ranking for dividend for each share of the company being held by the equity share holders. Net profit after Taxes and Preference Dividend/ No. of Equity Shares 19. PRICE EARNING RATIO : PE Ratio indicates the number of times the Earning Per Share is covered by its market price. Market Price Per Equity Share/Earning Per Share
    18 : 20. DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO : This ratio is one of the most important one which indicates the ability of an enterprise to meet its liabilities by way of payment of installments of Term Loans and Interest thereon from out of the cash accruals and forms the basis for fixation of the repayment schedule in respect of the Term Loans raised for a project. (The Ideal DSCR Ratio is considered to be 2 ) PAT + Depr. + Annual Interest on Long Term Loans & Liabilities --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Annual interest on Long Term Loans & Liabilities + Annual Installments payable on Long Term Loans & Liabilities ( Where PAT is Profit after Tax and Depr. is Depreciation)
    19 : Thank You

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