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    Respiratory System


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    1 : Name: Kamilah fernandez Date:24th april 2010 Group #: one (1). Subject: anatomy The Respiratory System
    2 : The Respiratory System The main function of the Respiratory System is to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of the carbon dioxide. To accomplish this function at least four processes, collectively called respiration, must happen: Pulmonary Ventilation. External Respiration. Transport of the Respiratory Gases. Internal Respiration.
    3 : The Respiratory System
    4 : Respiration Pulmonary Ventilation is the movement of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases there are continuously changed and refreshed (commonly called breathing). External Respiration is the movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs. Transport of Respiratory Gases is the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body, and of carbon dioxide from the tissue cells to the lungs. This is accomplished by the cardiovascular system using blood as the transporting fluid
    5 : Respiration. Internal Respiration is the movement of oxygen from blood to the tissue cells and of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood.
    6 : Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System The Respiratory System includes the nose and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and their smaller branches, the lungs which contains the terminal air sacs.
    7 : The Nose The Nose is the jutting external portion supported by bones and cartilage; internal nasal cavity divided by the nasal midline septum and lined with mucosa. It is the only external visible part of the respiratory system. The function of the Nose; Provides an airway for respiration. Moistens and warms entering air. Filters and cleans inspired air. Serves as a resonating chamber for speech. Houses the olfactory (smell) receptors.
    8 : The Nose When the air comes into the nose it gets filtered by tiny hairs and it is moistened by the mucus. The Paranasal Sinuses also help out in the Respiratory System. They help to moisten and heat the air that is breath in . Air can also get into your body through your mouth/oral cavity but air is not filtered as much when it enters in through your mouth.
    9 : The Nose
    10 : The Pharynx The funnel shaped pharynx connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to larynx and esophagus inferiorly. From superior to inferior, the pharynx is divided into three regions :the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx . The muscular pharynx wall is composed of skeletal muscle throughout its length , but the cellular composition of its mucosa varies from one pharyngeal region to another. The function of the pharynx; It is a passageway for air and food. It houses the tonsils and it facilitates the exposure of the immune system to inhaled antigens. It also exchanges air with Eustachian tube to equalize pressure
    11 : The Pharynx
    12 : The Larynx The larynx , or voice box, extends for about 5 cm from the level of the third to the sixth cervical vertebra. Superiorly it attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx. Inferiorly it is continuous with the trachea . The functions of the Larynx; To provide and open airway. To act as a switching mechanism to route air and food into the proper channels. The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that prevents food from going into the trachea to the lungs. Because it houses the vocal cords, the third function of the larynx is voice production.
    13 : The Larynx
    14 : The Larynx
    15 : The Trachea The trachea or windpipe, descends from the larynx through the neck and into the mediastinum. It ends by dividing into the two main bronchi at midthorax . In humans, it is 10–12 cm long and 2 cm in diameter, and very flexible and mobile. The tracheal wall consists of several layers that are common to many tubular body organs—the mucosa, submucosa, and adventitia . The mucosa has the same goblet cell–containing pseudostratified epithelium that occurs throughout most of the respiratory tract. Its cilia continually propel debris-laden mucus toward the pharynx. This epithelium rests on a fairly thick lamina propria that has a rich supply of elastic fibers.
    16 : The Trachea The function of the Trachea. It functions as an air passageway ( it is held open by incomplete rings of cartilage) and it cleans, warms and moistens incoming air.
    17 : The Trachea
    18 : The Trachea
    19 : Bronchi and Bronchial Tree It consist of right and left main bronchi, which subdivides within the lungs to form secondary and tertiary bronchi and bronchioles. The bronchiolar walls consist of a complete layer of smooth muscle. Smooth muscle and mucus secreting cells (Goblet cells) are also present. The bronchus is lined by ciliated psuedostratified columnar epithelium. The function of the Bronchi ; They are air passageways connecting the trachea with alveoli; cleans, warms and moistens incoming air.
    20 : The Bronchi
    21 : The Bronchi
    22 : The Alveoli Alveoli are microscopic chambers at termini of bronchial tree; walls of simple squamous epithelium underlain by thin basement membrane, the external surface intimately associated with the pulmonary capillaries. They are cover with surfactant that keep them from collapsing. The function of the Alveoli; It is the main site for gas exchange (i.e. Internal Respiration. The surfactant reduces surface tension and prevent the lungs from collapsing.
    23 : The Alveoli
    24 : The Alveoli
    25 : The Alveoli
    26 : The Lung and Pleura The paired lungs occupy all of the thoracic cavity except the mediastinum. Each cone-shaped lung is suspended in its own pleural cavity and connected to the mediastinum by vascular and bronchial attachments, collectively called the lung root. The anterior, lateral, and posterior lung surfaces lie in close contact with the ribs and form the continuously curving costal surface. Just deep to the clavicle is the apex, the narrow superior tip of the lung. The concave, inferior surface that rests on the diaphragm is the base. On the mediastinal surface of each lung is an indentation, the hilum, through which pulmonary and systemic blood vessels enter and leave the lungs. Each main bronchus also plunges into the hilum on its own side and begins to branch almost immediately. All conducting and respiratory passageways distal to the main bronchi are found in the lungs. The stroma of the lungs is elastic connective tissue allowing lungs to recoil passively during expiration.
    27 : The Lungs The Function of the Lungs; It houses the all conducting and respiratory passageways distal to the main bronchi.
    28 : The Lungs
    29 : The Pleura The pleurae form a thin, double-layered serosa . The layer called the parietal pleura covers the thoracic wall and superior face of the diaphragm. It continues around the heart and between the lungs, forming the lateral walls of the mediastinal enclosure and snugly enclosing the lung root. From here, the pleura extends as the layer called the visceral pleura to cover the external lung surface, dipping into and lining its fissures. The pleurae produce pleural fluid, which fills the slitlike pleural cavity between them. This lubricating secretion allows the lungs to glide easily over the thorax wall during our breathing movements. Although the pleurae slide easily across each other, their separation is strongly resisted by the surface tension of the pleural fluid. Consequently, the lungs cling tightly to the thorax wall and are forced to expand and recoil passively as the volume of the thoracic cavity alternately increases and decreases during breathing.
    30 : The Pleura
    31 : Respiratory Cycle
    32 : Regulation of Breathing The most important factor affecting the control of breathing in the body is the Co2 levels in the blood. An increase in the arterial Co2 causes an increase in acidity of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). An increase in the CSF acidity is detected by the pH sensors in the medulla in the brain. The medulla then increases the rate and depth of breathing. Medulla stimulates inspiratory muscles (diaphragm & external intercostal muscles).
    33 : Regulation of Breathing
    34 : Respiratory System Disorders Bronchial Asthma – Bronchial Asthma is the widespread narrowing of Bronchial Airways .This may be as a result of exposure to one or more stimuli, including allergens, drugs, exertion, emotion, infection and air pollution.
    35 : Respiratory System Disorders
    36 : Respiratory System Disorders Bronchitis- Bronchitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lungs. Bronchitis can be classified into two categories, acute and chronic. Acute Bronchitis is caused by viruses and bacteria. Chronic Bronchitis is causedby recurring injury or irritation to the respiratory epithelium of the bronchi, resulting in chronic inflammation, edema (swelling), and increased production of mucus by goblet cells
    37 : Respiratory System Disorder
    38 : Respiratory System Disorder Emphysema- Emphysema is caused by over expansions of alveolar sacs which leads to lost in elasticity, surface area and lung capacity and therefore insufficient take up of oxygen.
    39 : Respiratory System Disorder Pleurisy- Pleurisy is the inflammation of the pleura and is often cause by pneumonia in the underlying lung. Rhinitis- Rhinitis is the inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose. It is caused by a virus infection or allergic reaction. Pneumonia- Pneumonia is the inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria, in which the air sacs (alveoli) become filled with inflammatory cells andf the lung becomes solid.
    40 : Respiratory System Disorder
    41 : Respiratory System Disorder Tuberculosis- Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterized by the formation of nodular lesions (tubercles) in the tissue.
    42 : Thanks for listening

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