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    SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

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    1 : SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
    2 : Why is solid waste disposal a major problem for towns and cities? It is an expensive undertaking, the second largest expenditure after education It takes up valuable and expensive land close to towns and cities It devalues nearby land properties Pollutes groundwater, air and produces pungent odor The garbage disposal process represent a waste of natural resources.
    3 : Open waste dumps Abandoned piles of household garbage, bags of yard waste, appliances, old barrels, used tires, and debris such as lumber, shingles, pipes and asbestos can threaten the health of humans, wildlife, and the environment.
    4 : 1. Open waste dumps – demerits Open dumps create a public nuisance, divert land from more productive uses, and depress the value of surrounding land. Open dumps have become the feeding grounds for children from poor homes
    5 : A growing concern for Urban Dwellers: Plastic bags? Plastic Bags A major source of municipal solid waste
    6 : Open dumps pose the following health, safety, and environmental threats: Fire and explosion Inhalation of toxic gases in nearby homes Injury to children playing on or around the dump site Disease carried by mosquitoes, flies, and rodents Contamination of streams, rivers and lakes Contamination of soil and groundwater Contamination of drinking water Damage to plant and wildlife habitats Decrease in the quality of life to nearby residents and the local community
    7 : 2. Landfills Machines compact the clay to meet required density and depth Looking right to left we find the bottom clay liner, the top double synthetic liner, and then gravel being applied by bulldozers.
    8 : Preventing groundwater pollution in a landfill An adequate lining system is a necessary component for any landfill. The liner is designed as a barrier to intercept leachate and direct it to a collection system to prevent contamination of local groundwater.
    9 : Methane emissions from Landfills
    10 : 3. The Incineration process
    11 : Concerns over Incineration Incineration recovers energy that would otherwise be lost Requires less land Reduces odor but… Emits dangerous cancer causing compounds called dioxins
    12 : Modern Waste Management Systems
    13 : Recycling Recycling is a form of Reuse . However, Recycling involves some transformation of the original material into new forms.
    14 : REDUCE: Suggestions for reducing waste at source Purchase more durable and less of disposable items Buy more efficient products – cars, appliances and houses Reduce consumption of luxury items Purchase items that can be reused over and over Manufacturers must reduce packaging and design small-sized products.
    15 : Waste management systems and their impacts on the environment
    16 : Managing hazardous waste materials Reduction Modify or redesign manufacturing processes Reuse & recycling Substitute safe materials for harmful ones Discard approach Detoxification – physical and biological conversion of harmful substances into harmless material Secured toxic waste landfills Use of deep injection wells
    17 : Designing a secured landfill for disposing of hazardous waste materials

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