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    SPORT IN THE ANCIENT WORLD AND OUR EUROPEAN HERITAGE

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    1 : SPORT IN THE ANCIENT WORLD AND OUR EUROPEAN HERITAGE Copyright © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    2 : EARLY CULTURES Egypt Warriors trained Dancing was valued in religion China Only the military class valued physical development India Yoga, a system of meditation and regulated breathing
    3 : HOMERIC ERA (prehistoric time to 776 B.C.) Homer’s Iliad—describes the funeral games in honor of Patroclus Homer’s Odyssey—includes story of Odysseus on the island of the Phaeacians Aristocratic sports—warrior skills displayed in sports by noblemen Individual events only Informal Spontaneous Only amateurs
    4 : Events Chariot racing Boxing Wrestling Javelin Foot racing Discus Development of the Greek Ideal Man of Action—sports skills and military prowess Man of Wisdom—development of mind and philosophical abilities Emulated the Greek gods who were believed to have superior intellect and physical capabilities
    5 : SPARTAN ERA (776 B.C. to 371 B.C.) Early years they had freedoms and cultural activities Man of Action later took over with an emphasis on military supremacy State controlled life and education Girls were trained at home in gymnastics—to bear healthy children Boys Raised at home until age seven and trained by mothers
    6 : Between ages 7-20 males stayed in barracks training for military; were in companies of 64 boys with one leader and later in four companies or a troop; discipline was severe Between ages 20-30 males were in the military At 30 years, males became citizens and married Between ages 30-50, males trained boys in barracks Narrow-minded society (conquering) until at one time—9,000 Spartans to 250,000 captives In the early years, the Olympic Games were dominated by the Spartans (46 of 81 victories)
    7 : EARLY ATHENIAN ERA (776 B.C. to 480 B.C.) Developed into a liberal, progressive, and democratic city-state Greek Ideal of the unity of the Man of Action and the Man of Wisdom Athenian education Moral (character) training at home for both girls and boys Girls at home got no intellectual and practically no physical training
    8 : Boys Raised at home until seven, but sometimes went with father to the gymnasiums If could afford formal education Palaestra—place for physical training, sometimes called a wrestling school (the teacher was called a paidotribe) Didascaleum—place for intellectual training, sometimes call a music school
    9 : Males could become citizens at 18 years Between ages 18-20 males were subject to military service (always had to be ready for war) Citizens—physical work-outs and intellectual (philosophical) discussions at the state-furnished gymnasiums
    10 : LATE ATHENIAN ERA (480 B.C. to 404 B.C.) Military successes in the Persian Wars led to freedoms, individualism, and self-confidence “Golden Age” (443 B.C. to 429 B.C.)—cultural explosion as Man of Wisdom was stressed and Man of Action ignored Loss of interest in physical development Intellectualism Decline of Athenian military interest and involvement (no longer soldiers) Replacement of citizens by mercenaries
    11 : Professionalism and specialization in athletics (citizens became spectators instead of participants); athletes sold their services to city-states Gymnasiums became pleasure resorts and places for philosophical discussions instead of activity-filled centers; the only ones who trained physically were the professional athletes
    12 : HELLENISTIC PERIOD (323 B.C. to 146 B.C.) Under Alexander the Great—all Greek city-states united Diffused Greek culture throughout his empire
    13 : PANHELLENIC FESTIVALS Greek Athletic (Crown) Festivals Festival Place Honored Wreath Interval Founded Olympic Olympia Zeus olive 4 776 B.C. Pythian Delphi Apollo bay 4 582 B.C. Isthmian Isthmia Poseidon pine 2 582 B.C. Nemean Nemea Zeus wild celery 2 573 B.C.
    14 : IDEALS DEPICTED THROUGH GREEK ATHLETICS Appreciation of the aesthetics of beauty of movement Beautiful body matched with beautiful deeds Respect for courage and endurance Reverence for the gods Emphasized honor, modesty, and fair play Opposed one-sided development Love of competition—man against man for superiority, not for records
    15 : OLYMPIC GAMES (776 B.C. to about 400 A.D.) Held every four years in honor of Zeus and the Olympic Council of gods Cultural interaction between city-states Competitors and spectators (up to 40,000) were guaranteed safe passage (truce) through warring city-states No women at Olympic Games except for those who were in charge of the sacrifices Olive wreath for each winner Winners received odes; cash; pensions; statues; triumphal processions at city-states
    16 : COMPETITOR REGULATIONS Required to be Greek citizen Could be from any social class Required to train 10 months Required to train the last month at Olympia under the supervision of judges Pledged an oath of fair play Competed in the nude
    17 : EVENTS Footraces—how started; turning post Stade—the length of the stadium or about 200 meters (776 B.C.) Diaulos—2 stades (724 B.C.) Dolichos—24 stades (724 B.C.) Wrestling—standing with the winner throwing his opponent to the ground twice before being thrown twice (708 B.C.)
    18 : PENTATHLON—All-around athlete (708 B.C.) Race of 1 or 2 stades Javelin—8-10 feet to test both distance and form (with leather thong) Long jump using halteres Discus—using 1-foot diameter and 4-5 pound stone thrown from a fixed position Wrestling—always the deciding event
    19 : OTHER EVENTS Boxing—with leather thongs on hands (688 B.C.) Confined blows to the head No weight classifications Loser had to give up Pancration—combination of boxing and wrestling (loser had to give up) (648 B.C.) Chariot racing—(680 B.C.)—12 laps around 500-meter hippodrome Races in armor (580 B.C.) Boys’ events (632 B.C.) Horse racing (648 B.C.)—(1-6 laps)
    20 : Ending the Games: “The conquest of the Greeks by the Romans had a bad influence on the Pan-Hellenic Games. Unable to value gymnastics as a means of attaining beauty, symmetry of body, grace, complete development and harmony of body and soul, the conquerors hastened the decay of the games which had already begun under the Later Greeks. Professionalism was encouraged, the more brutal and exciting sports came to be, and bribery followed. The games ceased to have any connection with general education; the moral values to be derived from friendly competitions disappeared.”
    21 : HERAEAN GAMES “Every fourth year there is woven for Hera a robe by the Sixteen women, and the same also hold games called Heraea. The games consist of footraces for maidens. These are not all of the same age. The first to run are the youngest; after them come the next in age, and last to run are the oldest of the maidens. They run in the following way: their hair hangs down, a tunic reaches to a little above the knee and they bare the right shoulder as far as the breast. These too have the Olympic stadium reserved for their games, but the course of the stadium is shortened for them by about one-sixth of its length. To the winning maidens they give crowns of olive and a portion of the cow sacrificed to Hera. They may also dedicate statues with their names inscribed upon them.”
    22 : ROMAN REPUBLIC (@500 B.C. to 27 B.C.) Freedoms for people under aristocratic oligarchy; more democratic Moral and military training—superior to intellectual attainment Goal was to become a citizen-soldier Campus Martius and military camps—training for military (run; jump; swim; javelin; fencing; archery; riding; marching) Ages 17 to 47—could be drafted for war When not training or fighting, males and many females were spectators at festivals
    23 : ROMAN EMPIRE (27 B.C. to 476 A.D.) Loss of individual freedoms; lessened emphasis on military prowess; hired mercenaries after Romans had established the Empire; accompanied by a decay of morals Games and festivals (maybe as frequently as 250 days of the year) Staged for spectator entertainment with political overtones Professional athletes and gladiators competed for lucrative prizes
    24 : ROMAN EMPIRE (27 B.C. to 476 A.D.) Chariot races -- the more brutal, the more popular (usually 7 laps for a 3-mile event); took place at the circuses (Circus Maximus—260,000 capacity) Thermae or bathes—contrast baths with minimal exercise (except for the training of professional athletes and gladiators); cultural centers; dining areas
    25 : MIDDLE AGES (11th to 16th centuries, especially 1250-1350) Chivalry—moral and social code for noblemen (to serve God, lord, and lady) Feudalism—protection and government Manoralism—economics Knightly training Until 7 years—training at home 7-14 years (page)—under the lady of another castle for general training 14-21 years (squire)—under the direction of the lord of the castle for physical training 21 years—could become a knight
    26 : MIDDLE AGES (11th to 16th centuries especially 1250-1350) Activities of the squire Attend his lord as a valet and bodyguard Served his meals Assisted him in battle Cleaned his armor Learned knightly arts of riding; swimming; archery; climbing; jousting; tourneying; wrestling; fencing; courtly manners Learned responsibilities of knighthood
    27 : MIDDLE AGES (11th to 16th centuries especially 1250-1350) Tournaments—favorite amusements of the people Joust—combat between two armed horsemen with blunt weapons Grand tourney or melee—similarities to war with many men fighting with real weapons Crusades—interrelationship between the physical and spiritual (1095-1200s)
    28 : RENAISSANCE (1400-1600) Artists again depicted the human body as a revelation of beauty Health stressed to overcome epidemics Embraced the classical ideal of “a sound mind in a sound body”
    29 : REFORMATION (15OOs) Protestant sects relegated physical education to an inferior position and endeavored to curb “worldly pleasures” (religious fervor) Martin Luther and John Calvin were leaders in this movement Exercise was okay for health—in order to serve God better Protestant work ethic affected America
    30 : TIMELINE Middle Ages Enlightenment <-------------------------------> Reformation <------Dark Ages------------------------------><---------------------------><------------- 476<------->1095<---------->1200s<-----------1400--------->1600<-------1700s Crusades Renaissance
    31 : THE ENLIGHTENMENT (1700s) John Locke Knightly activities for British gentlemen "A sound mind in a sound body" in 1693 in Some Thoughts Concerning Education
    32 : EDUCATIONAL NATURALISM (1700s) Jean-Jacques Rousseau Wrote Emile as a philosophical model Stressed "everything according to nature" Training of the body preceded formal intellectual training—best if both could develop together naturally Stressed recreational, vigorous activity for children (natural activities) Readiness was the key concept
    33 : GERMAN GYMNASTICS Johann Basedow—Philanthropinum—1774 Based on naturalistic principles from Rousseau Program—1 hour in morning; 2 hours in afternoon; 2 hours of manual labor Fencing; dancing; riding; vaulting—Basedow Running; jumping; throwing; wrestling—Simon Johann Friedrich Simon—first physical education teacher
    34 : GERMAN GYMNASTICS C.G. Salzmann (teacher at Philanthropinum) Schnepfenthal Institute—1785 Patterned after the Philanthropinum and naturalism Program—daily for 3 hours Natural activities—run; jump Greek-type activities—wrestling; throwing Knightly activities—swimming; climbing Military exercises—marching; swordsmanship Manual labor—carpentry; gardening
    35 : GERMAN GYMNASTICS Johann Friedrich GutsMuths—1786-1835 Gymnastics for the Young —1792— foundation for physical education Games—1796—105 games classified with skills
    36 : GERMAN GYMNASTICS Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Physical education was a means, not an end—the hope of German freedom lay in the development of strong, sturdy, fearless youth—national regeneration Half-holiday excursions in natural settings—based on GutMuths’ ideas 1810—Turnplatz (outdoor exercising ground) with vaulting bucks; parallel bars; climbing ladders and ropes; balance beams; running track; wrestling ring
    37 : GERMAN GYMNASTICS Common uniform to make all social classes equal (gray canvas smock and trousers) Working classes and lower middle classes predominately Initially open only in July and August; later open year round Individualized under Jahn Vorturners trained younger boys 1819—illegal 1840—legal 1848—illegal (underground)
    38 : ADOLPH SPIESS—GERMAN SCHOOL GYMNASTICS (late 1840s) Stressed the essentially of physical education within education Exercise hall required Trained instructors—established a normal school to train them One class period per day Grades given—physical education was equal to other subjects Adapted to age levels For both boys and girls
    39 : ADOLPH SPIESS—FOUNDER OF GERMAN SCHOOL GYMNASTICS (late 1840s) Program Free exercise with music Marching with music and stressed discipline Little formalism in sports, games, and dancing Manual of gymnastics for schools
    40 : SWEDISH GYMNASTICS Per Henrik Ling—founder of Swedish gymnastics Four areas of gymnastics Military—national preparedness Medical—therapeutic healing Pedagogical—educational (methodology stressed) Aesthetics—expression of feelings 1814—Royal Gymnastics Central Institute Established by the government for military purposes with Ling as director
    41 : SWEDISH GYMNASTICS Program—used to achieve an already established objective Posture correcting—rigidly held positions Movement on command into positions (no freedom of movement) Apparatus—stall bars; vaulting boxes; climbing poles and ropes; oblique ropes; Swedish boom
    42 : SWEDISH GYMNASTICS Hjalmar Ling—Director of the educational segment of the RGCI in 1840s Developed Swedish school gymnastics—based on Per Henrik Ling's principles Program Day's order—progressive, precise execution of movements on command (for 11 body parts) Adapted to age and ability levels Adapted to both sexes Adapted apparatus to children
    43 : DANISH GYMNASTICS —FRANZ NACHTEGALL 1799—Established his private gymnasium based on the ideas of GutsMuths 1804—Director of the Military Gymnastic Institute—government financed and the first normal school for physical education Danish gymnastics—required in the schools in the 1820s Program Danish gymnastics—based on ideas from Germany, Sweden, and England For boys and girls—in the schools
    44 : DANISH GYMNASTICS—FRANZ NACHTEGALL Formalized exercise on command with no individual expression allowed Theme—nationalism 1809—Gymnastics in secondary schools 1814—Required for elementary boys 1828—Required for all boys (girls in the 1900s) Equipment—rope ladders; climbing masts and poles; balance beams; vaulting horse (like GutsMuths)
    45 : ENGLISH SPORTS English sports movement in the public schools—for upper-class boys Students worked toward (and were) the highest ideal of British sportsmanship Influenced amateur sport worldwide and especially in America The best sportsman makes the best citizen
    46 : ENGLISH SPORTS Sports Rugby Association football Cricket Track and field Rowing Muscular Christianity—teaching values through sports
    47 : ATTITUDES TOWARD SPORTS HELD BY STUDENTS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS A "public-school" type boy was more a product of sports and games than of books and scholastic training Physical fitness was not valued; instead, if one engages in sports, he will be fit; sports are just a part of life Sports were played by those less specialized, therefore, the level of expertise will be lower Skills are seldom practiced because sports skills will be learned by playing
    48 : ATTITUDES TOWARD SPORTS HELD BY STUDENTS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS Sports were mostly played between the houses with few spectators, although sometimes interschool matches were held Masters, out of school loyalty, acted as coaches Belief in playing the game for the game's sake—trying to do one's best Believed to teach socialization skills, leadership, loyalty, cooperation, sportsmanship, self-discipline, and initiative
    49 : ENGLISH SPORTS IN THE UNIVERSITIES Believed in informal, casual, and non-intense sports involvement—playing at their games Usually students played several sports (exception was rowing) No paid coaches—had undergraduate captains No faculty involvement and support Purchased own equipment; paid own travel Football and hockey paid for the upkeep of fields for other sports Winning the “blue” was very prestigious (Oxford-dark blue and Cambridge-light blue)
    50 : BRITISH AMATEUR SPORTS IDEAL Sports for sports’ sake—impeded commercialism Upper-class snobbishness toward competing against those who might violate the amateur tradition No one could do his best in academics without the qualities of mind and social interaction coming from sports
    51 : “Since games are regarded in Great Britain as essentially play rather than work, the line between the amateur, the man who plays at his games, and the professional, the man who works at sport for financial profit, is strictly drawn in most branches of athletics, nominally drawn in all. The whole force of public-school and university opinion tends to keep this distinction constantly charged with meaning. Very few people depend upon school, college, or university sport for their livelihood, and those who are thus dependent are regarded not as leaders, but as employees. No person depends upon victory for his living. These facts, supplementing the traditions of the public schools, stimulate a conscious effort to prevent the commercialization of school and university sport and of amateur sport in general. Thus, the phrases, ‘play the game’ and ‘to play the game for the game’s sake,’ transcend the usual emptiness of such slogans, gather an almost mystical significance, and become the rallying cries of British sportsmen.”
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