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    School Meals and the public domain

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    1 : 1 School Meals and the public domain Mara Miele School of City and Regional Planning Cardiff University, UK ESRC – Festival of Social Science 2007 Cooking numbers and eating words: using data to investigate food, lifestyle and health Leeds, March, 9 th 2007
    2 : 2 The project Delivering Sustainability: Towards the Creative Procurement of School Meals Financial support ESRC, Economic and Social Research Council, UK Research team Production: Kevin Morgan, Terry Marsden, Roberta Sonnino, Yoko Kanemasu Consumption: Mara Miele, Tanja Bastia
    3 : 3 School meals and multiple dividends “Through creative public procurement, school meals could deliver a multiple dividend: First, more nutritious school food could help reduce diet-related health problems […]; Second, more locally produced school meals could create new local markets for local farmers and producers […]; Third, a more localised agri-food chain could yield environmental benefits through lower food miles […].” (Morgan and Morley, 2002)
    4 : 4 Research design Whole food-chain approach Production Procurement Consumption Goal: Role of public sector in fostering sustainable food chains How were changes introduced? Catalysts for change. What do you need to make these changes happen? Legislation, partnership, support, etc. How were these changes received by pupils, parents and members of staff?
    5 : 5 Case studies Scotland East Ayrshire Wales Carmarthen England Gloucestershire Italy Rome Piombino Additional case studies London New York
    6 : 6 Data and methodology Procurement Five local authorities Procurement officers Production Three to four producers in each local authority Consumption Primary and secondary school per local authority Head-teacher, head-cook, two teachers (e.g. home economics, P.E.)
    7 : 7 Focus groups with children and parents Pupils Primary school, Year 4-5 (9-10 years old) Secondary, Year 7-8 (12-13 years old) Discussion Games: animals and vegetables Diaries Parents Eating and shopping practices Attitudes towards children’s food consumption Opinion of school meals
    8 : 8 School meals in Italy School meals Post WWII nutrients Education Role of organic food Positive benefits Impact of chemicals on children Environmental education Participation
    9 : 9 The educational role of school meals
    10 : 10 School meals ethos “School catering can facilitate a formative, educational and socialising journey that can enable school-age children to get to know each other, compare themselves, while highlighting and stressing that despite their different tastes, inclinations, sexualities and socio-economic backgrounds, they all share the affective problems and the symbolism that underline consumption.” Rosa Bianco Finocchiaro, coordinator, interregional programme on food communication and education
    11 : 11 Why is there a need for food education in Italy? Mediterranean diet High consumption of fruit and vegetables Lower consumption of meat products
    12 : 12 Source. INEA, L’agricoltura italiana conta, 1995, 1996, 1997, L’informatore zootecnico after EU Commission report Average food consumption in Italy: the Mediterranean components of the Italian Diet (kg per capite per annum)
    13 : 13 The Mediterranean diet
    14 : 14
    15 : 15 Obesity and consumption trends Children Obesity (high in Italy) Consumption trends Increased snacking Disruption of family meals Sedentary lifestyle
    16 : 16 III. Children’s obesity rates, Italy and UK
    17 : 17 Pre-obesity and obesity, 15 year olds
    18 : 18 Section 4, art. 59, law 23, December 1999, no. 488, Disposition on the annual and long-term State budget (Financial Law 2000), Gazzetta Ufficiale no. 302, December 27, 1999 (Suppl. Ord. No. 2227). “To guarantee the promotion of organic agricultural production of ‘quality’ food products, public institutions that operate hospital and school canteens will provide in the daily diet the use of organic, typical and traditional products, as well as those from denominated areas, taking into account the guidelines and other recommendations of the National Institute of Nutrition. Public contracts for such services will be subject to art. 23, paragraph 1, letter b) of Law Decree, 17 March, 1995, no. 157 and later modifications, assigning primary importance to the quality of the agricultural products to be supplied.”
    19 : 19 Case study: Tuscany (Piombino)
    20 : 20 Research sites Primary school Perticale in Piombino Secondary school Riotorto
    21 : 21 School meals in Piombino SIR Eudania Merger of 4 companies in 1992 HQ Florence 1250 employees In Piombino since 1987 14 schools Pre-school Primary schools One secondary school, Riotorto Centralised cooking system 900 meals a day 17% ‘special meals’
    22 : 22 Role of dietician Provide nutritional guidance Design menus, in collaboration with others Educational programmes Children’s school meals commission Meet 3 times a year Linked to Piombino ‘children’s city’ initiative Children – catering company Provide feedback on menu Improve menus Participation and inclusion in process of change
    23 : 23 Food education Sensorial workshops E.g. cauliflower Breakfast workshops Alternatives to milk and biscuits Labels Supermarket visits Learning about label information
    24 : 24 What children eat All meals have First course (rice, pasta, soup, etc.) Second course (meat or fish with vegetables) Fruit Water Three menus Summer (October and mid April to June) Winter (November to January) Intermediary (February to mid April) Variety linked to seasonality Transition from conventional to organic Decrease waste through Measuring everything Know children’s response to food
    25 : 25 Example of school Meals for summer period (from Easter holidays to first half of October) 1th week – 2003/2004 SPECIAL MEALS are provided , with products in substitution for meat (vegetarian), dairy products, tomato, fish, eggs, gluten or flour (for pupils with food intolerance), or with relation to the culture or religion.
    26 : 26 Example of school Meals for winter period (from first half of October to Easter holidays ) 1th week – 2003/2004
    27 : 27 School meals fees (prices) Annual Subscription: € 18.08 (UK£12.50 ) A) Entire rate € 3.12 (UK£ 2.16) for a meal. B) Reduced rate € 1.56 (UK£ 1.08) for a meal: for household with annual capita income 0 - € 5,560 (UK£ 3,848) inclusive For family units with more children in the school, a reduction of 20% above the entire and reduced rate for the school measl is provided. C) Exemption from payment: for household unit with an annual capita income no higher than € 3,445 (UK£ 2,384 s)
    28 : 28 An opportunity for teaching the value of a balanced midday meal Ensuring variety Diaries More than just nutrition Table manners ‘Proper’ meal ‘Mothering’ role of school meals Conference Dietician
    29 : 29 An opportunity for learning about the social value of eating with others How children eat One teacher per class Teacher sits and eats with the children Rectangular tables, 8 children per table Role of the cook “Not knowing who cooks their food has a negative emotional influence on the relationship children have with the food they eat” Catering company dietician
    30 : 30 How do children eat in school? Catering company staff Bring the meals in containers Serve (self-service) Clean up Teachers Sit and eat with the children Learning through food Nutrition Socialisation
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    38 : 38 NO Choice and equality All children eat the same “Giving children the choice is a problem” “If the children are allowed to have only the second course, they put it in bread and then they only have a sandwich; they won’t eat a proper meal.” (Catering company dietician) ‘Special meals’ Appearance
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