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    Add as FriendSingle-Subject Designs

    by: Rogers

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    1 : Single-Subject Designs
    2 : There are two broadly defined approaches to experimental researchgroup designs single-subject designs
    3 : Both approaches apply the components of the scientific method to their approach to research- the difference between group and single-subject designs lies in the manner in which the principles of the scientific method are put into operation in designing studies
    4 : Single-subject designs are also called: Time series functional analysis within-subject experimental analysis of behavior single-case experimental designs
    5 : Single-Subject Designs Use this design to demonstrate a functional relationship between changes in the IV and the resultant changes in the DV it provides an empirical verification that behavior change occurred because intervention occurred and no other cause
    6 : Components of Single-Subject Designs Single-subject designs are typically depicted by using letters A and B A = the baseline and withdrawal phases B = treatment phase there are different single-subject designs some are descriptive some are experimental
    7 : Descriptive Designs A = baseline only (diary study) B = treatment only (case study) AB = baseline + treatment (case study; no control)
    8 : Experimental Single-Subject Designs Withdrawal Designs ABA BAB ABAB TREATMENT - Reversal Designs NO TREATMENT ABA COMPARISONS ABAB Multiple Baseline Designs MB x Behaviors MB x Subjects MB x Settings
    9 : Experimental Single-Subject Designs Interaction Designs Reduction (A - BC - B - C) Addition (A - B - C- BC) use these designs to look at interactive effects of individual components of tx Component assessment designs Alternating Treatments Designs B A - C - B or C or D D Treatment-Treatment Comparison
    10 : Components of Single-Subject Designs specify the problem select the design measure the problem repeated measures baseline analysis of data
    11 : Specify the problem Identify the behavior that needs to be changed or treated the behavior must be specified as clearly as possible in order for it to be reliably measured
    12 : Select the design There are a variety of SS designs that are defined by different phases select design on basis of question want to answer Withdrawal, Reversal or MB designs answer question “Is treatment effective?” Interaction designs answer question, “What are the interactive components of treatment?” ATD answer question, “Which treatment is more effective?” Phases in SS designs consist basically of a baseline (or no tx phase) and tx phases. These phases can be combined in different ways to derive different designs
    13 : Measure the problem After the behavior has been clearly defined, the clinician decides how the behavior will be measured,e.g., correct/incorrect responses, rate of response, length of response, etc.
    14 : Repeated Measures The behavior is repeatedly measured before, during, and after treatment to determine if any changes have occurred in that behavior. This component is the HALLMARK of single-subject designs
    15 : Baseline Before treatment is initiated, the behavior is measured over a period of time (1-2 weeks, few days) the BL provides a comparison of “before” and “after” treatment in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment approach
    16 : Analysis of data Single-subject designs rely on visual analysis of the graphed data rather than on statistical analysis of the data to make decisions about the significance of the treatment approach slope, trend, and level of graphed data
    17 : Comparison of Single-Subject and Group Designs Group designs and SS designs share similar attitudes and components, but they use the components differently in SS designs, as in all experimental research, variables are manipulated and then you measure the effect of the IV on the DV SS designs differ from group designs in how they demonstrate experimental control
    18 : Comparison of Single-Subject and Group Designs Experimental control in SS designs is demonstrated in 2 ways: in SS designs, the SUBJECT serves as their own control and is administered all conditions of the experimental condition and then all conditions are re-measured therefore, don’t need a control group to demonstrate experimental control control behavior or control phase
    19 : Comparison of Single-Subject and Group Designs Group designs demonstrate experimental control in 3 ways: two groups (control group and experimental group) random selection of subjects from a larger population of subjects statistical tests help to look beyond the variability found in examining the individual performances of the subjects within each group. Thus, idiosyncratic behavioral patterns are ignored by pooling subjects’ data and the statistic serves as a control for extraneous variables
    20 : Comparison of Single-Subject and Group Designs Single-subject designs also differ from group designs in terms of how power/significance of the results is determined In SS designs, power/significance is demonstrated in 2 ways: through the replication of tx effectiveness across AB phases within a subject and/or replication of tx effectiveness across subjects through the trend, slope, and level of the visually presented data
    21 : Comparison of Single-Subject and Group Designs In group designs, power is demonstrated through statistical significance
    22 : Summary Comparison of Group and Single-Subject Designs: Experimental Control Group Designs Control + Experimental Groups Random selection of subjects Statistical tests Single-Subject Designs Each subject serves as OWN control Control behavior or control phase
    23 : Summary Comparison of Group and Single-Subject Designs: Power/Significance Group Designs Statistical significance Single-Subject Designs Replication across phases within subjects across subjects Visual inference of graphed data slope, trend, level
    24 : Visual Analysis of Single-Subject Designs Group designs determine the effectiveness/significance at predetermined probability levels, e.g., .05 or .01
    25 : Visual Analysis of Single-Subject Designs Single-subject designs determine the effectiveness of the IV generally by visual examination of the graphed data therefore the reader of SS research must be cautious in interpreting tx effectiveness from visual inference 3 parameters important to visually presented data and graphs trend slope level
    26 : Trend The effectiveness of the IV is measured by comparing the direction of the behavior before tx and after tx is administered 3 directions the behavior may take: increase in the occurrence of the behavior decrease in the occurrence of the behavior no change in occurrence of the behavior to be believable, the behavior must be measured a sufficient number of times to establish that it is not change before tx (min. of 3x recommended) and there must be a stable BL
    27 : Slope The degree of slope in the trend will indicate how strong the trend is. A pronounced slope is stronger evidence that the behavior is changing than if the slope is a gentle one
    28 : Level The level at which the behavior is occurring before treatment is important in determining the significance of the change in the behavior following tx
    29 : Criteria for Evaluating Single-Subject Designs Determine if: the data are reliable the behavior was altered when intervention was administered (level) the change observed was significant (slope) the results are generalizable to other individuals the BL was stable (trend) there was no variability within phases and/or phases
    30 : Advantages of Single-Subject Designs Hard to find large N of subjects for group designs don’t need a large N of allegedly homogeneous subjects with a particular communication disorder, random selection of Ss for sample and random assignment to groups ethical question to withhold tx for control group SS designs are clinically based - don’t need to have a group of CD individuals who will not receive tx in order to have a control group
    31 : Advantages of Single-Subject Designs Get detailed information on individual subjects rather than pre-post scores you get individual data points across time and therefore can detect individual differences in response to tx easier to control for Ss since each Ss serves as his/her own control SS designs are “intervention designs” that can be used for exploring tx effectiveness which is a primary issue in CDIS
    32 : Advantages of Single-Subject Designs SS designs are “practice based” and “practitioner oriented” in that they are flexible and changes can be made during the course of tx if deemed necessary by the clinician Researcher-clinician gap is narrowed environment for conducting SS research can easily be incorporated into clinical practice without disruption conducted in clinic during clinic hours and regularly scheduled tx sessions
    33 : Advantages of Single-Subject Designs Provide clinicians with a tool for demonstrating accountability to their clients, administrators, and funding sources.
    34 : Disadvantage of Single-Subject Designs Reluctance to generalize results from single subjects to groups of individuals
    35 : Considerations in Using Single-Subject Designs Length of phases should be equal (each tx phase) however, this is not always possible therefore, usually use criterion levels and maximum number of sessions Counterbalancing whenever more than one behavior is treated sequentially, there is risk of order effects order effects can be controlled in MB studies by counterbalancing this requires a second subject who goes through study in an opposite training order from 1st Ss therefore, more than 1 Ss needed for MB studies
    36 : Considerations in Using Single-Subject Designs Selecting Behaviors 2 behaviors selected for tx in a MB study must be different (independent) enough that they must not impact each other PRINCIPLE: 2 different behaviors and a single tx Baseline BL measures must be obtained on all DV responses the BL period must be sufficient enough to determine the stability of the response the BL must demonstrate a trend, slope, and level that is sufficiently different from the DV when the IV is applied.

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