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    Add as FriendSolar System

    by: Amritesh

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    2 : An Introduction... In our solar system, nine planets circle around our Sun. The Sun sits in the middle while the planets travel in circular paths called orbits around it.
    3 : These nine planets travel in the same direction counter clockwise looking down from the Sun north pole . The picture on the right shows the different paths and positions of each planet
    4 : Discovery and exploration For many thousands of years, humanity, with a few notable exceptions, did not recognize the existence of the Solar System. People believed the Earth to be stationary at the centre of the universe and categorically different from the divine or ethereal objects that moved through the sky. Although the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samo had speculated on a heliocentric reordering of the cosmos, Nicolaus Copernicus was the first to develop a mathematically predictive heliocentric system.
    5 : STRUCTURE The principal component of the Solar System is the Sun, a main-sequence G2 star that contains 99.86 percent of the system's known mass and dominates it gravitationally. The Sun's four largest orbiting bodies, the gas giants, account for 99 percent of the remaining mass, with Jupiter and Saturn together comprising more than 90 percent. Most large objects in orbit around the Sun lie near the plane of Earth's orbit, known as the ecliptic.
    6 : COMPOSITION ROCKY PLANETS Mercury - Venus - Earth - Mars - Pluto The rocky planets are mostly made up of rock and metal. These planets are very heavy and move slowly. They also do not have rings and very few moons. GAS PLANETS Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus - Neptune The gas planets are mostly made up of gases (hydrogen and helium). These planets are light for their sizes (just like a big air balloon) and move quickly. They have rings and lots of moons.
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    8 : Inner Solar System The solar system is made up of two parts: The inner solar system contains Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. These four planets are closest to the Sun. The outer solar system contains Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The inner planets are separated from the outer planets by the Asteroid Belt. 
    10 : COMET’S Comets are the effluent of chunks of icy debris from the outer regions of the protoplanetary nebula that evaporate when they get within several Astronomical Units of the Sun, producing a gaseous coma and sometimes a tail.
    11 : History Early interpretation: atmospheric exhalations. Evil omens. Tycho (1577): demonstrates comets are astronomical objects, beyond Moon Halley (1704): uses Newtonian theory of gravity to interpret 4 comets as the same object in an elliptical orbit with semi major axis 18 AU, period 76 yr. Correctly predicts return (1759).  
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    13 : ASTEROIDS Asteroids are chunks of rock and metal that orbit around the Sun. Scientists think that they are loose material that never formed into planets. The Main Asteroid Belt is located between Mars and Jupiter. .
    14 : The total mass of all the asteroids is less than that of the Moon. There are 26 known asteroids larger than 200 km across. We probably know 99% of the asteroids larger than 100 km across. We've cataloged about half of the asteroids in the 10 km to 100 km size range. Scientists still don't know much about the smaller ones. It's thought there may be as many as a million 1 km sized asteroids may exist
    15 : Sun The Sun is the Solar System's star, and by far its chief component. Its large mass (332,900 Earth masses) produces temperatures and densities in its core great enough to sustain nuclear fusion, which releases enormous amounts of energy, mostly radiated into space as electromagnetic radiation, peaking in the 400–700 nm band we call visible light.
    16 : MERCURY Mercury is a small, rocky planet. Mercury has been visited by the Mariner 10 spacecraft. Mariner 10 has mapped a little less than half (45%) of Mercury's surface. Scientists think that there may be *volcanic activity* on Mercury. They are still studying information sent to Earth from the Mariner spacecraft to make sure. The temperature on Mercury ranges from 90 K to 700 K. It was once believed that there was no water on Mercury, but this turned out to be false. Recent radar information shows evidence of ice at Mercury's north pole! The ice hasn't melted because it is protected from the Sun's heat by shadows of some craters. Unlike many of our nine planets, Mercury has no moons.
    17 : VENUS Venus is a small, rocky planet blanketed in a thick layer of yellowish clouds. These clouds are not made of water like the ones here on Earth. Instead, they are formed from a poison called sulfuric acid. Venus' surface is very hot - about 400 degrees Celsius! Even though Venus is very cloudy, it's simply *too hot* for rain to form. The first spacecraft to visit Venus was Mariner 2 in 1962. Venus has since been visited by more than 20 spacecraft in all so far! Some of these visiting spacecraft include: Pioneer Venus, Venera 7, Venera 9 and Magellan.  
    18 : EARTH Earth is the only planet whose English name does not derive from Greek or Roman mythology. The name comes from Old English and Germanic language. There are, of course, hundreds of other names for the planet in other languages. Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the fifth largest of the nine planets.
    19 : 71 % of the Earth's surface is covered with water. Earth is the only planet on which water can exist in liquid form on the surface. Water is essential for life as we know it. The Earth's vast oceans keep temperatures stable - important for life on our planet. Water is also responsible for most of the erosion and weathering of the Earth's continents, a process unique in our solar system. The Earth's atmosphere is 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, with traces of argon, carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere is very important. Carbon dioxide helps to maintain the Earth's temperature by way of the "Greenhouse Effect." The Greenhouse Effect warms the Earth's temperature; without it, the oceans would freeze and life as we know it would be impossible.
    20 : MARS Mars is a small, rocky planet which is cold and lifeless.  The first spacecraft to visit Mars was Mariner 4 in 1965. Several others followed Including the two Viking landers in 1976. After a long break, Mars Pathfinder landed successfully on Mars on July 4, 1997.  Mars has permanent ice caps at both poles made up mostly of solid carbon dioxide. We know this as "dry ice." Very strong winds and vast dust storms sometimes blow through the entire planet for months. Mars has two tiny moons which orbit very close to the surface. Their names are Phobos and Deimos.  
    21 : JUPITER Jupiter is a giant gas planet which is made up of about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium.  Jupiter was first visited by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft in 1973. It was later visited by Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Voyager 2 and Ulysses. The spacecraft Galileo is currently in orbit around Jupiter and will be sending back data for at least the next two years. Jupiter is so big that you could cram 1,000 Earths inside of it! That's *mighty big*!  It is thought that Jupiter's "Great Red Spot" is a storm of swirling gas that has lasted for hundreds of years. Scientists are still unsure as to how such a storm could last for so long.  Jupiter has 16 known moons! There are four large "Galilean" moons, and 12 small ones.  
    22 : SATURN Saturn is a giant gas planet which is made up of about 75% hydrogen and 25% helium. It's most famous for its thousands of beautiful rings. Saturn was first visited by the Pioneer 11 spacecraft in 1979. Saturn has also since been visited by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. Saturn is made up of materials which are lighter than water. If placed in a big pond, Saturn would float much like an ice cube does in a glass of water. Saturn has 18 known moons - more than any other planet! There may very well be several small ones yet to be discovered.    
    23 : Saturn's rings are made up mostly of water ice, but they may also include rocky particles with icy coatings. The origin of the rings of Saturn is currently unknown.
    24 : URANUS Uranus is a giant gas planet which is made up of mostly rock and various ices. Uranus has been visited by only one spacecraft, Voyager 2 on Jan 24 1986. Uranus spins differently from most planets. It seems to be tilted "sideways" instead of right-side up. At the time of Voyager 2's passage, Uranus' south pole was pointed almost directly at the Sun. Uranus has 15 known moons. Voyager 2 discovered 10 small moons in addition to the 5 large ones already known. It is likely that there are many more tiny moons within the rings.  
    25 : NEPTUNE Neptune is a giant gas planet which is most likely made up of various "ices" and rock. Neptune has been visited by only one spacecraft, Voyager2 on Aug 25 1989. Almost everything we know about Neptune comes from this one visit. Depending on how far along Pluto is in its orbit (path around the Sun), Neptune can be either the eighth or ninth planet. Pluto's orbit is kind of wacky, and it sometimes crosses in front of Neptune. When Pluto does this, Neptune is behind Pluto - hence, it is the ninth planet for a short time.
    26 : THANK YOU

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