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    Add as FriendSpace Science and Exploration

    by: priya

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    1 : Space Science and Exploration CNES programme update Paris, September 19, 2005
    2 : Summary part 1 : CNES ongoing projects part 2 : CNES future projects
    3 : CNES programmation major programme orientations given by the scientific community every 4 to 6 years, workshops of scientific prospective in order to elaborate the mid/long - term priorities of the French scientific community Saint - Malo, October 93 Arcachon, March 98 Paris, July 04 complementarity between activities within ESA and activities outside ESA balance between the main scientific domains (astronomy vs solar system) introduction of new topics : fundamental physics and astroparticles, exobiology, space weather, NEO threat
    4 : ESA’s scientific programme ESA’s mandatory scientific programme « Cosmic Vision » is the core and the top priority of the French programme in space sciences task sharing (general rule, but with exceptions) : ESA : platform procurement, satellite integration, launch, operations member-states : onboard scientific equipments the national participation is thus two-fold : contribution to the Cosmic Vision programme, a mandatory activity of ESA with a contribution proportional to GNP development of onboard scientific instruments
    5 : Other ESA programmes participation to other ESA programmes with a scientific content : AURORA : solar system exploration ISS utilization
    6 : Activities outside ESA the activities « outside ESA » complement or prepare on original and focused scientific and technological goals the participation to the « Cosmic Vision » programme bi- ou multi-lateral co-operations : participations to missions of external initiative, with USA, Russia, other European countries, Japan, Canada, India, China national activities mini satellites (PROTEUS) micro satellites (MYRIADE) balloons
    7 : Space sciences & exploration : CNES ongoing projects
    8 : Within ESA’s scientific programme mission under exploitation HST (coop. ESA-NASA) XMM INTEGRAL MARS EXPRESS CASSINI – HUYGENS (coop. ESA-NASA) Ulysses SOHO CLUSTER + Double Star (coop. ESA-CAS)
    9 : Within ESA’s scientific programme decided payloads contributions to missions under development VENUS EXPRESS (launch in October 05) HERSCHEL PLANCK SURVEYOR MIRI / JWST (coop. ESA-NASA) LISA PathFinder planned contributions to future missions GAIA (ground segment) BEPI COLOMBO Solar Orbiter LISA (coop. ESA-NASA)
    10 : Microscope (CNES-ESA) March 2009 Herschel-Planck August 2007 ? Lisa- Pathfinder 2009 Venus Express Oct. 2005 Astro-F (Japan-ESA) 2006 Corot (CNES-ESA) Julyl. 2006 JWST (NASA-ESA) 2013 Gaia 2011-12 Bepi-Colombo 2013 Lisa 2014 ? 2015 Solar Orbiter 2015 ESA’s Cosmic Vision programme
    11 : National programme Microsatellites of the Myriade family : Microscope Picard Minisatellites of the PROTEUS family : COROT ISS utilization PHARAO/ACES Bilateral projects and opportunities T2L2 experiment MSL-09 (NASA) GLAST (NASA) NASA’s Explorer & Discovery missions (e.g. FUSE, GALEX, HETE) ODIN (Sweden)
    12 : COROT 2 goals : stellar sismology search for extrasolar planets description : small astronomy satellite based upon CNES’s multimission platform PROTEUS contributions from Spain, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Brasil, and ESA PI : A. Baglin (LESIA, Paris Observatory) launched planned mid 2006 (Soyouz 2.1b from Baikonur)
    13 : PICARD goals : to determine the relation solar irradiance vs solar diameter to correlate the changes of solar irradiance with past climate evolutions description : CNES micro satellite (MYRIADE family) payload contributions from Belgium and Switzerland P.I. : G. Thuillier (CNRS, Service d’Aéronomie) launch in spring 2008
    14 : MICROSCOPE goal : test of the Equivalence Principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass at 10-15 3 orders of magnitude better than the best tests on ground recent theories (Damour & Veneziano) predict a violation between 10-12 and 10-15 PI : P. Touboul (ONERA), co PI : E. Samain (Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur) principle : relative motion of 2 proof masses of different materials free-falling in the Earth gravity field the masses are placed inside a drag-free satellite to eliminate the non gravitational forces
    15 : MICROSCOPE description : CNES micro satellite (MYRIADE family) drag-free satellite FEEP electric µ-thrusters by Centrospazio, Italy (ESA contract) 2 ultrasensitive differential accelerometers with capacitive detection by ONERA, France contributions from Germany (DLR) and ESA launch planned in 2009 mission parameters SSO orbit 700 km, 6h/18h (9 months without eclipse) excentricity : 5x10 -3, inclination : 95° nominal mission duration : 1 year Traînée
    16 : PHARAO / ACES goal : test of an ultra stable (10-16 / day) and ultra precise (10-16) Cs cold atom space clock « PHARAO » (PI : C. Salomon, ENS \ LKB) part of ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space), see next chart applications : fundamental physics experimental tests time & frequency metrology, time distribution future generations of positioning and navigation systems future cold atom devices : accelerometers, gyrometers status : engineering model under AIT ; decision to build FM 2nd semester 06
    17 : PHARAO / ACES ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will be installed by late 2009(?) on the ISS and will include the Cs cold atom clock PHARAO a Hydrogen maser (Neuchatel Observatory, Switzerland) a frequency comparator and a board-to-ground µ-wave link (ESA)
    18 : propagation of light pulses between a ground based clock and a space clock 2-way method measurement of 3 dates (departure, on board arrival , return to Earth) high performance time transfer and comparison between remote ground clocks PI : E. Samain, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur (OCA\GEMINI) retroreflector clock detector Ground clock T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link)
    19 : T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) originally T2L2 was proposed to fly onboard ACES, but withdrawn for mass budget alternative flight opportunities have been looked for, e.g. CNES microsatellite a recent opportunity appeared : to fly T2L2 onboard JASON 2 (2008); recommendation by CNES’s science programme committee to catch this opportunity; CNES has endorsed the recommendation wich is under implementation ground segment via International Laser Ranging Service
    20 : Space sciences & exploration : CNES future projects
    21 : Projects under study : formation flying formation flight : 2 or more satellites whose positions and orientations are mutually controled (servo-loop) + a distributed payload, equivalent to a very large dimension space instrument (e.g. interferometer, long focal optics) one demonstration mission is planned ; the primary goal is formation flying validation but a significant scientific content is mandatory 4 phase 0 level studies on 4 science projects are on-going high cost, hence co-operation is mandatory
    22 : Projects under study : formation flying schedule : selection of 2 missions for phase A in October 2005 selection of 1 mission for phase B by late 2006 possible launch date : 2012-2013 preliminary step : participation to PRISMA technological mission (2008) led by Sweden (SNSB/SSC) with contributions from Germany and Denmark provision of a RF subsystem and test of coarse formation control
    23 : ASPICS solar coronograph MAX gamma lens PEGASE NIR interferometer SIMBOL X X ray observatory Projects under study : formation flying
    24 : ASPICS observation of the solar corona by external occultation : evolution of the fine structure of the low corona concept : one msat « in the Sun » carries the occultation disk, one msat « in the shadow » 100 m away observes the corona detection : visible and UV (La, He II or O VI) orbit : L1 or GEO-like, descoped option GTO science team : IAS, LAM, IAP possible co-operation with ESA/DTEC on a descoped version (« ASPICS light »)
    25 : SIMBOL X (1/2) X ray observatory in the 0.5-70 keV energy range detection of faint objects & imaging of thermal and non thermal emission zones : quasars, AGN, extra galactic black holes, accretion disks and jets, clusters of galaxies PI : Ph. Ferrando (CEA) science team : CEA/SAp, CESR, APC concept : 1 satellite with mirrors at grazing incidence + 1 satellite with focal plane detectors orbit : L2 or HEO theme highlighted in Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, XEUS precursor
    26 : SIMBOL X (2/2) possible co-operations : Italy (mirrors + satellite), Germany (detectors) Italian scientists incorporated in the science team a joint phase A could start by late 2005
    27 : MAX g ray lens 800-900 keV band : Supernovae Ia 450-550 keV band : e-e+ annihilation line, galactic center, dark matter, X binaries, AGN, µ-quasars… PI : P. von Ballmoos (CESR) science team : CESR, CEA, LAM, CPPM, LRR, LAOG concept : 1 satellite carrying the lens + 1 satellite with focal plane detector orbit : L2 or HEO theme not selected in Cosmic Vision 2015-2025
    28 : PEGASE NIR (0.4 – 6.0 µm) interferometer, direct & dark fringes : exoplanets (Pegasides), brown dwarfs, protoplanetary disks PI : A. Léger (IAS) science team : IAS, Obs. Paris, OCA, ENS Lyon, LAOG, ONERA concept : 2 collector µ sats + 1 satellite for recombination orbit : L2 or HEO high angular resolution and high dynamics theme highlighted in Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, DARWIN precursor
    29 : Other projects under study Cosmology SAMPAM : cosmic backgound radiation polarization mission DUNE : dark matter distribution survey mission Astronomy & astrophysics : SVOM (ex ECLAIRs) : gamma ray bursts, detection and observation Solar system : Mars in situ science rendezvous mission with a Near Earth Asteroid Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere : TARANIS : observation of sprites (µ sat) SMESE (ex LYOT) : coronal mass ejection phenomena (µ sat)
    30 : Solar physics : SMESE Chinese – French planned cooperation, agreement on a mission concept based upon a French-built microsat platform of the « Myriad » family science definition team with 4 Chinese, 4 French + 1 ESA + 1 NASA (ILWS) French and Chinese – provided instruments phase 0/A initiated by CNES extending from fall 05 up to end of 06 launch date targeted by 2011 (next solar cycle starts to decrease)
    31 : Solar physics : SMESE merging of the French proposals LYOT (IAS) and MIRAGES (LESIA) with the Chinese proposal SMESE (Purple Mountain Observatory) objectives : study of the Coronal Mass Ejection phenomena (CMEs), connection with solar eruptions, structure of the low transition region, space weather (ILWS)
    32 : Solar physics : SMESE platform : major heritage from PICARD (orbit, pointing) and DEMETER (X band) mission control center in France, receiving stations and data centers in France and in China payload : L? coronograph (IAS) IR imager (LESIA) X & ? spectro (PMO) payload integration at CNES facilities with the support of the instrument providers
    33 : Astrophysics : SVOM China-led high energy astrophysics mission based upon the French platform « PROTEUS », proposed by the National Astronomical Observatory and the Astrophysics group of the Hign Energy Physics Institute prime objective : GRB major commonalities with the French project ECLAIR presently in phase 0/A at CNES and based upon a CNES microsat platform of the « Myriade » family … … but higher capabilities payload provision shared between French and Chinese institutes
    34 : ECLAIRs objective : multi-wavelength study of the Gamma-Ray Burst prompt emission proposers : J. Paul (CEA/Sap), B. Cordier (CESR) mission based upon a CNES microsat platform of the « Myriade » family … presently in phase 0/A at CNES
    35 : Wide field of view (~2 sr) coded mask telescope encircled by a graded Detection plane (DPIX) made of 200 XRDPIX modules developed Array of CdTe detectors XRDPIX modules Useful area 1024 cm2 Spectral band 4.0 to 250 keV Low threshold 4.0 keV in the framework of CNES/CESR and CNES/CEA R&D programs shield collimator to reduce the cosmic diffuse induced background Slide 35 ECLAIRs : the X and gamma camera
    36 : Detection Units in the Visible (UDV) disposed on the earth to observe in the visible band a large fraction of the space instrument field of view Scientific Treatment Unit (UTS) to perform real time computation and data handling ECLAIRs : the scientific instruments
    37 : DUNE distribution of dark matter in the universe telescope at L2 : visible-NIR wide field imaging of distant galaxies, type Ia supernovae, gravitational lensing effects proposers : A. Refregier and O. Boulade (CEA), E. Barrelet (LPNHE), Y. Mellier (IAP) theme highlighted in Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 phase 0 level study starting
    38 : Dark energy and dark matter : the content of the Universe Dark energy Dark matter What is the nature of : Dark energy ? Dark matter ?
    39 : How to probe dark matter and dark energy ? First method Use of standard candles to measure distances and expansion rate Z = 1.5 SNIa wide field imaging in Visible and near IR Z = 2 GRB (?) ECLAIRS like mission (SVOM)
    40 : Second method : trace dark matter using gravitational lensing Need to cover large surface > 1000 deg2
    41 : DUNE (ongoing concept study) baseline design optimized for weak lensing 1.2m diameter telescope 0.48 deg2 field of view 56 CCDs optimised in red PSF FWHM 0.23” 0.115”/ pixels 1 wide filter z+I+R 1 3 year observations (total) 60% observation efficiency Observation strategy weak lensing 18000 deg2 at high galactic latitude ( |b| > 30? ) 1 wide filter filtre z+I+R 4 dithers × 375 sec = 1500 sec exposure limiting magnitude: mag 26.6 for galaxies (50% completeness) 35 usable galaxies per amin2 (> 7s, > 1.2 PSF FWHM) ground based followup for photometric redshifts
    42 : SAMPAM polarization of the CMB (Planck Surveyor follow-on) cooled telescope at L2 : all sky survey in the submm range detectors : bolometer matrices at 0.1 K, CNES R&T ongoing proposers : J.-L. Puget (IAS) + consortium (CRTBT, CESR, LAL, APC, IAP) theme highlighted in Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 phase 0 level study starting
    43 : NEO rendezvous mission rendezvous with a near Earth asteroid and caracterization of the object small probe Smart 1-class ; reference payload : radar tomography, IR spectro, multispectral imager, radioscience proposers : M.-A. Barucci (Obs. Paris\LESIA) + consortium (OCA, LPG) theme selected in Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 possible co-operations : Italy, UK, Germany I, UK, D scientists in the science team phase 0 starting
    44 : objective : study of « sprites » TARANIS
    45 : 4 instrument packages : cameras, EM waves, X and ? spectra, high energy electrons P/L development by several scientific laboratories in France (CEA/DAM, CNRS/LPCE), DK and USA PIs : Elisabeth Blanc (CEA) and François Lefeuvre (LPCE) phase A in 2005-2006 TARANIS
    46 : Mars in situ science in the context of ESA’s new programme AURORA 2011 : ExoMars, the 1st European mission landing on Mars main goal : demo of a European-built martian EDLS with a growth potential (EDLS scalable to bigger landers) Soyouz 2.1b launch from Kourou 1 carrier vehicle with a lander / rover / geophysical station robustness with respect to launch window shift federative scientific objectives : geophysics, geochemistry, exobiology 2016-2020 : Mars Sample Return, a mission (or a series of missions), international frame, important European participation planned
    47 : Mars in situ science : ExoMars 2011 procurement by a European consortium of the geophysical station (co-lead : IPGP+CNES and DLR) partnership ESA / participating states potential participations from Belgium, Canada, Germany, Finlande, France, Italy, UK PHILAE / ROSETTA scheme phase A in 2006
    48 : END

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