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    Add as FriendSupply Chain Management

    by: manish.kumar

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    1 : 1 Basics of Supply Chain Management
    2 : 2 Definitions
    3 : 3 What Is the Supply Chain? Also referred to as the logistics network Suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, distribution centers and retail outlets – “facilities” and the Raw materials Work-in-process (WIP) inventory Finished products that flow between the facilities
    4 : 4 The Supply Chain
    5 : 5 The Supply Chain – Another View Plan Source Make Deliver Buy
    7 : 7 History of Supply Chain Management 1960’s - Inventory Management Focus, Cost Control 1970’s - MRP & BOM - Operations Planning 1980’s - MRPII, JIT - Materials Management, Logistics 1990’s - SCM - ERP - “Integrated” Purchasing, Financials, Manufacturing, Order Entry 2000’s - Optimized “Value Network” with Real-Time Decision Support; Synchronized & Collaborative Extended Network
    9 : 9 The Importance of Supply Chain Management Dealing with uncertain environments – matching supply and demand Boeing announced a $2.6 billion write-off in 1997 due to “raw materials shortages, internal and supplier parts shortages and productivity inefficiencies” U.S Surgical Corporation announced a $22 million loss in 1993 due to “larger than anticipated inventories on the shelves of hospitals” IBM sold out its supply of its new Aptiva PC in 1994 costing it millions in potential revenue Hewlett-Packard and Dell found it difficult to obtain important components for its PC’s from Taiwanese suppliers in 1999 due to a massive earthquake U.S. firms spent $898 billion (10% of GDP) on supply-chain related activities in 1998
    10 : 10 The Importance of Supply Chain Management Shorter product life cycles of high-technology products Less opportunity to accumulate historical data on customer demand Wide choice of competing products makes it difficult to predict demand The growth of technologies such as the Internet enable greater collaboration between supply chain trading partners If you don’t do it, your competitor will Major buyers such as Wal-Mart demand a level of “supply chain maturity” of its suppliers Availability of SCM technologies on the market Firms have access to multiple products (e.g., SAP, Baan, Oracle, JD Edwards) with which to integrate internal processes
    11 : 11 Supply Chain Management and Uncertainty Inventory and back-order levels fluctuate considerably across the supply chain even when customer demand doesn’t vary The variability worsens as we travel “up” the supply chain Forecasting doesn’t help!
    12 : 12 Factors Contributing to the Bullwhip Demand forecasting practices Min-max inventory management (reorder points to bring inventory up to predicted levels) Lead time Longer lead times lead to greater variability in estimates of average demand, thus increasing variability and safety stock costs Batch ordering Peaks and valleys in orders Fixed ordering costs Impact of transportation costs (e.g., fuel costs) Sales quotas Price fluctuations Promotion and discount policies Lack of centralized information
    13 : 13 Today’s Marketplace Requires: Personalized content and services for their customers Collaborative planning with design partners, distributors, and suppliers Real-time commitments for design, production, inventory, and transportation capacity Flexible logistics options to ensure timely fulfillment Order tracking & reporting across multiple vendors and carriers Shared visibility for trading partners
    14 : 14 Supply Chain Management – Key Issues Forecasts are never right Very unlikely that actual demand will exactly equal forecast demand The longer the forecast horizon, the worse the forecast A forecast for a year from now will never be as accurate as a forecast for 3 months from now Aggregate forecasts are more accurate A demand forecast for all CV therapeutics will be more accurate than a forecast for a specific CV-related product Nevertheless, forecasts (or plans, if you prefer) are important management tools when some methods are applied to reduce uncertainty
    15 : 15 Supply Chain Management – Key Issues Overcoming functional silos with conflicting goals
    16 : 16 Supply Chain Management – Key Issues Source: Simchi-Levi
    17 : 17 Supply Chain Management Operations Strategies Source: Simchi-Levi
    18 : 18 Supply Chain Management – Benefits A 1997 PRTM Integrated Supply Chain Benchmarking Survey of 331 firms found significant benefits to integrating the supply chain Source: Cohen & Roussel
    19 : 19 Supply Chain Imperatives for Success View the supply chain as a strategic asset and a differentiator Wal-Mart’s partnership with Proctor & Gamble to automatically replenish inventory Dell’s innovative direct-to-consumer sales and build-to-order manufacturing Create unique supply chain configurations that align with your company’s strategic objectives Operations strategy Outsourcing strategy Channel strategy Customer service strategy Asset network Reduce uncertainty Forecasting Collaboration Integration Supply chain configuration components
    20 : 20 Value of Information and SCM
    21 : 21 Information In The Supply Chain Source Make Deliver Sell Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses & Distribution Centers Retailer Each facility further away from actual customer demand must make forecasts of demand Lacking actual customer buying data, each facility bases its forecasts on ‘downstream’ orders, which are more variable than actual demand To accommodate variability, inventory levels are overstocked thus increasing inventory carrying costs It’s estimated that the typical pharmaceutical company supply chain carries over 100 days of product to accommodate uncertainty Plan
    22 : 22 Taming the Bullwhip Reduce uncertainty in the supply chain Centralize demand information Keep each stage of the supply chain provided with up-to-date customer demand information More frequent planning (continuous real-time planning the goal) Reduce variability in the supply chain Every-day-low-price strategies for stable demand patterns Reduce lead times Use cross-docking to reduce order lead times Use EDI techniques to reduce information lead times Eliminate the bullwhip through strategic partnerships Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) Collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR) Four critical methods for reducing the Bullwhip effect:
    23 : 23 Methods for Improving Forecasts Accurate Forecasts Panels of Experts Internal experts External experts Domain experts Delphi technique Moving average Exponential smoothing Trend analysis Seasonality analysis Judgment Methods Time-Series Methods Causal Analysis Market Research Analysis Relies on data other than that being predicted Economic data, commodity data, etc. Market testing Market surveys Focus groups
    24 : 24 The Evolving Supply Chain
    25 : 25 Supply Chain Integration – Push Strategies Classical manufacturing supply chain strategy Manufacturing forecasts are long-range Orders from retailers’ warehouses Longer response time to react to marketplace changes Unable to meet changing demand patterns Supply chain inventory becomes obsolete as demand for certain products disappears Increased variability (Bullwhip effect) leading to: Large inventory safety stocks Larger and more variably sized production batches Unacceptable service levels Inventory obsolescence Inefficient use of production facilities (factories) How is demand determined? Peak? Average? How is transportation capacity determined? Examples: Auto industry, large appliances, others?
    26 : 26 Supply Chain Integration – Pull Strategies Production and distribution are demand-driven Coordinated with true customer demand None or little inventory held Only in response to specific orders Fast information flow mechanisms POS data Decreased lead times Decreased retailer inventory Decreased variability in the supply chain and especially at manufacturers Decreased manufacturer inventory More efficient use of resources More difficult to take advantage of scale opportunities Examples: Dell, Amazon
    27 : 27 Supply Chain Integration – Push/Pull Strategies Hybrid of “push” and “pull” strategies to overcome disadvantages of each Early stages of product assembly are done in a “push” manner Partial assembly of product based on aggregate demand forecasts (which are more accurate than individual product demand forecasts) Uncertainty is reduced so safety stock inventory is lower Final product assembly is done based on customer demand for specific product configurations Supply chain timeline determines “push-pull boundary” Supply Chain Timeline Raw Materials End Consumer Push Strategy Pull Strategy Push- Pull Boundary “Generic” Product “Customized” Product
    28 : 28 Choosing Between Push/Pull Strategies Pull Push Pull Push Economies of Scale Low High Low High Demand Uncertainty Industries where: Customization is High Demand is uncertain Scale economies are Low Computer equipment Industries where: Standard processes are the norm Demand is stable Scale economies are High Grocery, Beverages Industries where: Uncertainty is low Low economies of scale Push-pull supply chain Books, CD’s Industries where: Demand is uncertain Scale economies are High Low economies of scale Furniture Where do the following industries fit in this model: Automobile? Aircraft? Fashion? Petroleum refining? Pharmaceuticals? Biotechnology? Medical Devices? Source: Simchi-Levi
    29 : 29 Characteristics of Push, Pull and Push/Pull Strategies Source: Simchi-Levi
    30 : 30 Supply Chain Collaboration – What Is It? Many different definitions depending on perspective The means by which companies within the supply chain work together towards mutual goals by sharing Ideas Information Processes Knowledge Information Risks Rewards Why collaborate? Accelerate entry into new markets Changes the relationship between cost/value/profit equation
    31 : 31 Supply Chain Collaboration Cornerstone of effective SCM The focus of many of today’s SCM initiatives The only method that has the potential to eliminate or minimize the Bullwhip effect
    32 : 32 Benefits of Supply Chain Collaboration Source: Cohen & Roussel
    33 : 33 Supply Chain Collaboration Spectrum Source: Cohen & Roussel Number of Relationships Extent of Collaboration Many Few Limited Extensive Transactional Collaboration Synchronized Collaboration Cooperative Collaboration Coordinated Collaboration Not Viable Low Return The green arrow describes increasing complexity and sophistication of: Information systems Systems infrastructure Decision support systems Planning mechanisms Information sharing Process understanding Higher levels of collaboration imply the need for both trading partners to have equivalent (or close) levels of supply chain maturity Synchronized collaboration demands joint planning, R&D and sharing of information and processing models Movement to real-time customer demand information throughout the supply chain
    34 : 34 Successful Supply Chain Collaboration Try to collaborate internally before you try external collaboration Help your partners to work with you Share the savings Start small (a limited number of selected partners) and stay focused on what you want to achieve in the collaboration Advance your IT capabilities only to the level that you expect your partners to manage Put a comprehensive metrics program in place that allows you to monitor your partners’ performance Make sure people are kept part of the equation Systems do not replace people Make sure your organization is populated with competent professionals who’ve done this before
    35 : 35 Emerging Best Practices in SCM Strategy
    36 : 36 The SCOR Model
    37 : 37 Collaboration and the SCOR Model The Supply-Chain Council (SCC) is a global, not-for-profit trade association open to all types of organizations 800 world-wide members Multi-industry SCC sponsors and supports educational programs including conferences, retreats, benchmarking studies, and development of the Supply-Chain Operations Reference-model (SCOR), the process reference model designed to improve users' efficiency and productivity Promotes research and thought leadership in the supply chain management area Adoption of common standards for reference to process, information and material goods flows is essential to enable trading partner collaboration
    38 : 38 Quantify the operational performance of similar companies and establish internal targets based on “best-in-class” results Benchmarking Characterize the management practices and software solutions that result in “best-in-class” performance Best Practices Analysis Process Reference Model Capture the “as-is” state of a process and derive the desired “to-be” future state Business Process Reengineering Capture the “as-is” state of a process and derive the desired “to-be” future state Quantify the operational performance of similar companies and establish internal targets based on “best-in-class” results Characterize the management practices and software solutions that result in “best-in-class” performance Process Reference Models Process reference models integrate the well-known concepts of business process reengineering, benchmarking, and process measurement into a cross-functional framework
    39 : 39 SCOR Structure
    40 : 40 Customers Suppliers P1 Plan Supply Chain Plan P2 Plan Source P3 Plan Make P4 Plan Deliver Source Make Deliver S1 Source Stocked Products M1 Make-to-Stock M2 Make-to-Order M3 Engineer-to-Order D1 Deliver Stocked Products D2 Deliver MTO Products D3 Deliver ETO Products S2 Source MTO Products S3 Source ETO Products Return Source P5 Plan Returns Return Deliver Enable D4 Deliver Retail Products SCOR 7.0 Model Structure
    41 : 41 Consumer Foods Project Time (Start to Finish) – 3 months Investment - $50,000 1st Year Return - $4,300,000 Electronics Project Time (Start to Finish) – 6 months Investment - $3-5 Million Projected Return on Investment - $ 230 Million Software and Planning SAP bases APO key performance indicators (KPIs) on SCOR Model Aerospace and Defense SCOR Benchmarking and use of SCOR metrics to specify performance criteria and provide basis for contracts / purchase orders Examples of SCOR Adoptions
    42 : 42 The SCOR Model As Context for This Course Pharmaceutical sales and marketing activities have their own set of logistics related activities that can be fully described using the SCOR model
    43 : 43 The SCOR Model As Context for This Course Two interrelated “supply chains” work together to deliver drugs to market: The Marketing and Sales “supply chain” which is principally information-based The Logistics supply chain which is principally product-based Sales Manufacturing & Distribution

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