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    Add as FriendTRADE BARRIERS

    by: rai.jaspreet15

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    2 : The Tariff is TAX Tax levied on goods that moves internationally. Most common instrument used for Controlling Exports and Imports. About TARIFFs
    3 : A tax which is levied on goods. The tariff which is levied on exports called “EXPORT TARIFF”. Tariff imposed on IMPORTS of goods known as IMPORT TARIFF. Define TARIFFs
    4 : The Tariff which is collected on PER UNIT basis called “ SPECIFIC DUTY or TAX”. EXAMPLE: The specific duty on Import of cars is Rupees : 50,000 per car. SPECIFIC DUTY?
    5 : An important effect of TARIFF is that , It raises the price of the Goods. For Instance: The import tariff raises the price of Imported good, and thereby makes them less competitive in comparison to domestic goods.
    7 : TARIFF are often imposed on the basis of the direction of products movement, i.e. On imports or exports, with the less common one. When export tariff are levied, they usually apply to an exporting country’s scare resources or raw materials. How direction>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Import and Export
    8 : Protective and Revenue Tariff The purpose of Protective Tariff is to protect Home industry, Agriculture, Labor against Foreign competitors by trying to keep them out of the country. Purpose?
    9 : The purpose of revenue tariff in contrast to Protective tariff means is to generate tax revenue for the government. Compared to Protective Tariff, Revenue Tariff is relatively low. REVENUE TARIFF
    10 : Surcharge Vs Countervailing Duty, LENGTH
    11 : Protective tariff are further classified into two tariffs : Surcharge and Countervailing Surcharge is known as Temporary Action. Tariff Surcharge?
    12 : This duty is a permanent Surcharge . Example: it is imposed on certain import goods when products are subsidized by foreign governments. COUNTERVAILING TARIFF
    14 : For instance: On car { Given in previous slides}. Ad Valorem Duties… According to the Value” [provides an easy comparison of rates across countries and across products] Specific rates…
    15 : Combination of both Specific and countervailing Tariff. For Instance: The tariff may be 10 cents per pounds plus 5 percent ad-valorem. COMBINED RATES…
    16 : Source of revenue. Tariff serves as a source of revenue to the government just as other taxes and duties do. Protection of Domestic Industries. Price of Imported goods in the hands of the consumers is highly by the amount of the tariff. BENEFITS OF TARIFF
    17 : Redistribution of Income: Supports domestic producers. MAJOR DRAWBACKS OF TARIFF ARE;; Consumer in domestic market have to pay High prices
    19 : Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) refer to restrictions that result from prohibitions, conditions, or specific market requirements that make importation or exportation of products . NON TARIFF
    20 : Import bans General or product-specific quotas Complex/discriminatory Rules of Origin Quality conditions imposed by the importing country on the exporting countries . Complex regulatory environment Determination of eligibility of an exporting country by the importing country Determination of eligibility of an exporting establishment (firm, company) by the importing country. Examples of NON TARIFF are as:
    21 : Occupational safety and health regulation Employment law Import licenses State subsidies, procurement, trading, state ownership Export subsidies Fixation of a minimum import price Product classification Quota shares Multiplicity and Controls of Foreign exchange market Inadequate infrastructure "Buy national" policy Over-valued currency Restrictive licenses Seasonal import regimes Corrupt and/or lengthy customs procedures
    22 : Subsidies Import Quotas Voluntary Export Restraints Administrative Policy Anti-Dumping Policy Local Content Requirement Customs Valuation Standards. Reciprocal Requirement About Non-Tariff Barriers
    23 : A subsidy is a direct payment made by the government to a company in order to make it more competitive nationally or internationally. Subsidy can be in form of Low interest rate, R& D Development, Cash Grants, Technical assistance and many more. . SUBSIDIES
    24 : Service Subsidy Economic Subsidies. Production Subsidies. Export Subsidies. CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSIDIES
    25 : A QUOTAS is a Quantitative form of restrictions imposed on imports and exports. It specifies the amount of quantity that could be imported or exported. Normally Restriction is enforced by way of issuing licenses. For Instance: In the USA, there is an import quota on cheese and only those companies could import which posses a license. IMPORT QUOTAS
    26 : A variation if import quota is the voluntary export restraint (VER). In VER, the exporting nation, after consultation with the importing nation, voluntarily fixes the quota regarding the maximum amount of quantity which it will be exporting to the concerned nation. The exporting nation agree to VERs in order to avoid the more strict measures like : import quotas, tariffs etc. which could be applied by the importing nations. Voluntary Export Restraints
    27 : A part from the formal ways of interfering in trade, nations resort to international administrative policies, which are rules and procedures to be followed, with the objective of discouraging imports and encouraging exports. FOR INSTANCE: nether land export TULIP BULBS to all nations except Japan . ADMINSTRATIVE POLICY
    28 : In economics, "dumping" is any kind of Predatory Pricing especially in the context of International Trade. It occurs when manufacturers export a product to another country at a price either below the price charged in its home market, or in quantities that cannot be explained through normal market competition. ANTI DUMPING POLICY
    29 : Local Content requirement says that some specific fraction of the product to be produced locally. Sometimes this fraction is specified in terms of value of products and sometimes, in physical terms. It is imposed by both the nations, developed and developing nations. LOCAL CONTENT REQUIREMENTS
    30 : WHY DEVELPOED NATIONS? In order to protect the employment and local industry. WHY DEVELOPING NATION USED ? For develop industry by assembling from exporter to manufacturer.
    31 : Customs Valuation is the process where customs authorities assign a monetary value to a good or service for the purposes of import or export. Generally, authorities engage in this process as a means of protecting tariff concessions, collecting revenue for the governing authority, implementing trade policy, and protecting public health and safety CUSTOM VARIATIONS
    32 : For Instance US imposed 25% customs duty on SPORTS VEHICALS like Suzuki Samurai and Land Rover, by treating them as heavy trucks, instead 2.5 % were fixed for cars.
    33 : Standards are set for health, welfare, safety, quality, size and measurements in order to create barriers for foreign products. FOR INSTANCE: the labeling requirement could ask a company to specify the place of origin. STANDARDS
    34 : It is known for counter Trade The exporting country can ask importing country to buy merchandise or services in lieu of cash payment. Reciprocal Requirements. GOODS GOODS
    35 : “PEPSICO” Provided syrup to Russian Bottling Plants in return for VODKA, which it sold to west. Example on reciprocal requirement"
    36 : - – Book: Handbook on “International Marketing” by Thakur Publisher, Ludhiana, first edition, 2010 SOURCES:
    37 : Your Queries?

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