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    Add as FriendThe Pharmaceutical Industry

    by: Rogers

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    1 : ThePharmaceutical IndustryMartin Donohoe, MD, FACP
    2 : The Pharmaceutical Industry Outline Economics drug costs drug development Research Marketing Drug Regulation/The FDA Ethical, Legal and Policy Issues
    3 : Home Care 80-90% of illnesses cared for outside formal health care system Family (women), friends, media Non prescription drug use = 2 x prescription drug use Non-prescription drug costs = 1/2 prescription drug costs
    4 : Self Medication Inappropriate self (and child) medication - diarrhea - the common cold - other viral infections
    5 : Self Medication Enemas for diarrhea and fever Mix benadryl and alcohol for insomnia Educational brochures have variable effect on use of medical services, including OTC medication
    6 : Inappropriate Self-medication: The Common Cold Greater than 800 OTC medications available Not beneficial in children under 3 years old, except acetaminophen for very high fevers 1/3 of children less than 3 years old treated 2% received ASA -risk of Reye’s syndrome
    7 : Inappropriate Self Medication: Diarrhea Greater than 100 OTC medications available 15% of children less than 3 years old treated
    8 : Inappropriate OTC Medication Use in Children Ineffective Potential for ADEs and ODs Profile of users’ parents: -better educated -uninsured Provider visits reduce use Provider phone calls do not
    9 : Prescription Drugs 10,000 FDA-approved drugs 70% of all office visits lead to prescriptions 1.5 - 2.0 billion prescriptions/year
    10 : Prescription Drugs >10% of U.S. medical costs account for 44% of increase in health care costs in 1999
    11 : U.S. Drug Use 81% have used at least one drug in the preceding week HTN and HA most common reasons 50% took at least one prescription drug 7% took 5 or more 14% took herbal supplements (16% of prescription drug users)
    12 : Prescription Drugs Over $300/person/year, or $22,500 over a 75-year lifetime Increased life expectancy from 55-75 from 1920 to present; decreased morbidity (HTN, DM, BPH, PUD, RA, Psychiatric D/Os) Cost effectiveness of drugs (cost/QALY < $50,000 for 48-65% of medications)
    13 : Economics of the Pharmaceutical Industry Worldwide sales > $145 billion/year US = Largest markets (40 % of worldwide sales) Sales for the 10 largest drug companies = $28 billion in 2000, $37 billion in 2001 tax breaks - can deduct marketing and R & D expenses
    14 : Economics 18.6% profit margin in 1999 16.4% in 2000 ($24 billion) -Largest of any industry-4 times greater than average return of all fortune 500 companies-8 out of 25 most profitable U.S. companies are pharmaceutical companies
    15 : Economics of the Pharmaceutical Industry Greater than 5000 companies worldwide-less than 100 companies account for over 90% of worldwide market Top 5 companies have market shares of 2.75 - 3.5%
    16 : Mergers and Acquisitions Drug company mergers - Pfizer-Warner-Lambert, Upjohn-Pharmacia, Glaxo-Wellcome-SmithKliine Beecham, etc. Pfizer acquired Pharmacia in 7/02 for $60 billion to become the world’s most powerful drug conglomerate
    17 : Mergers and Acquisitions Acquisition of generic divisions and PBM’s -Merck-Medco -Glaxo-Wellcome-Smith-Kline Beecham-DPS -Lilly - PCS Health Systems Acquisitions of health care providers -Zeneca-Sallick Health Care
    18 : Economics Sales revenues tripled over last decade Prices increased 150% (verses 50% CPI Spending up 17% from 2000 top 2001
    19 : Economics Average CEO compensation = $20 million (1998) Pharmaceutical Manufacturer’s Association and Medical Device Manufacturer’s Association are powerful lobbies
    20 : Drug Industry Lobbying $38 million donated to Congressional campaigns in the 1990s $84 million in 2000 election (2/3 to Republicans) GW Bush received $456,000 during his 2000 election campaign
    21 : Drug Industry Lobbying 623 lobbyists for 535 members of Congress Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) - $169,000 in 2000 - #1 John Ashcroft (prev. R-MO, now Atty. Gen’l) - $50,000 in 2000 Front groups - e.g., Citizens for Better Medicare ($65 million ad campaign to defeat a Medicare prescription drug plan)
    22 : Drug Costs U.S. highest in the world 54% > Europe 34% to 80% > Canada (drug companies still among the most profitable in Canada) Cross border pharmacy visits increasingly common the fastest growing component of the $1.3 trillion US health care bill
    23 : Drug Costs U.S. only large industrialized country not regulating drug prices AND the only major economic power that allows an inventor to patent a medicine (as opposed to the methods and processes used to produce it)
    24 : Drug Pricing Policies and Regulations Product Pricing Control France, Italy, Spain Reference Pricing Germany, Netherlands Profit Control U.K. No control U.S.
    25 : Decreasing Costs Formularies Generics Volume discounts/mail order prescriptions Patient activism-e.g., AIDS/ACT UP Crossing the border Illegal to import prescription drugs, but FDA usually turns a blind eye for 90 day supply or less
    26 : Drugs: Who Pays? 55% out-of-pocket 25% private insurance 17% medicaid 3% Other (VA, Workman’s Comp, IHS, etc..)
    27 : Drug Development: Who Pays? $20 billion in 1999 Pharmaceutical companies R & D budget increasing U.S. taxpayers NIH-funded research (total NIH budget = 20.3 billion in 2001) 1995 Reasonable Drug Pricing Clause removed
    28 : Drug Development Costs 1991 PHRMA study (flawed): up to $800 million per drug Other estimate: $300 – 600 million per new drug 2000 Tufts/Public Citizen Reports: $110 million 55% of the research that led to the discovery and development of the top 5 selling drugs of 1995 paid for by the federal government
    29 : Where Prescription Dollars Go Research and development - 12%-preclinical testing - 6%-clinical testing - 6% Manufacturing and distribution - 24% Sales and marketing - 26% Administrative / miscellaneous expenses - 12% Taxes - 9% Net profit - 17%
    30 : The Elderly and Prescription Drug Coverage Elderly represent 12% of U.S. population, yet account for 33% of drug expenditures 17% of the 37 million elderly Medicare patients are poor or near poor (incomes less than $7,309 or $9,316 respectively) The 64% of elderly Medicare enrollees with no coverage for outpatient drug costs are sicker and poorer then their counterparts with supplemental insurance.
    31 : The Elderly and Prescription Drug Coverage Average outpatient drug expenditure from $59 - $1,1153 Drug expenditures increased 13% between 1994 - 1997; SS and SSI benefits increased by 1.3%
    32 : Race, The Elderly and Prescription Drug Coverage Older black Americans are more likely than whites to lack supplemental drug coverage 30% vs. 10% Black Medicare enrollees are more likely than whites to not fill at least one prescription drug due to price in the past year 1 in 6 vs. 1 in 15
    33 : The Elderly and Prescription Drug Coverage Consequences: The elderly, chronically ill without coverage are twice as likely to enter nursing homes Noncompliance, partial compliance Increased ER visits, preventable hospitalizations, disability, and costs
    34 : The Elderly and Prescription Drug Coverage Universal outpatient drug coverage cost-saving -pharmaceutical industry strongly opposed Bush/Congressional prescription drug benefit proposals woefully inadequate States trying to decrease costs State Medicaid budgets in trouble, mostly due to rising drug costs
    35 : The Elderly and Prescription Drug Coverage 2001 California Medicare Prescription Drug Discount Program 75% compliance by pharmacies; only 45% before patient requested discount Compliance lower in poorer neighborhoods Important to consider the disabled 14% of Medicare enrollees (different drug use patterns)
    36 : Expired Drugs Initial packaging date usually 2-3 yrs from the date of manufacture Pharmacists repackage – new expiration date usually 1 year Some OK Not OK: Epi-pen, ophthalmic agents, others controversial
    37 : Drug Reimbursement Systems Copayments-income variation-exempted groups Cost-sharing Expenditure limits Positive and negative prescribing lists Therapeutic efficacy categories
    38 : Pharmaceutical Benefits Managers 100-115 million patients affected Purpose-Improve prescribing practices-Control Costs Open vs closed formularies Report cards for MD’s, but no good outcomes data
    39 : Pharmaceutical Benefits Manufacturers Data-may not decrease costs, due to increased OTC medications use, longer hospital stays, increased use of other drug categories Most purchased by pharmaceutical companies-conflict of interest-e.g., increased Merck prescriptions written after acquisition of Medco
    40 : Economics 320,000 Jobs(45% increase over last 10 years) Increased employment / income (decreased for other U.S. manufacturing industries)
    41 : Generics Increased market share-1983 = 15%-1993 = 40%-2000 = 42% $20 billion sales in 1999 (vs over $90 billion for prescription drugs) Prices rose almost twice as rapidly as those of brand-name drugs in 2002
    42 : Generics Avg cost $18 vs $61 for comparable name-brand drug (1999) Doctors underestimate costs of name-brand drugs and overestimate costs of generics 90% of the time (Arch Fam Med 2000;160:2802)
    43 : Generics Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act (1984)-requires bioequivalence, rather than therapeutic equivalence Pharmaceutical companies purchasing generic divisions (e.g., Merck - Medco) Large drug firms account for 70% of generic market
    44 : Over-the-Counter Meds Price per prescription decreases, but insurance won’t cover Antihistamines: Claritin, Zyrtec, Allegra H2 blockers
    45 : Over-the-Counter Meds OCPs Pharmacist-prescribed emergency contraception reduces number of unintended pregnancies cost saving
    46 : Generics - Litigation Under Hatch-Waxman Law of 1984, lawsuits brought by pharmaceutical companies against generic manufacturers, whether frivolous or not, can delay FDA approval of generic drug by 30 months 73% of cases won by brand name companies
    47 : Generics - Litigation Dupont Pharmaceuticals vs Barr Laboratories: Coumadin/warfarin Novartis vs Sangstat Neoral/cyclosporine A Zenith Goldline Pharmaceuticals vs Abbott Labs terazosin/Hytrin; $1 million/day
    48 : Lobbying, Patent Extensions and Alternate Formulations Lobbying and Congressional bills Schering Plough / Claritin - $20 million lobbying campaign, big-name lobbyists (Howard Baker, Dennis Deconcini, Linda Daschle) Koop - Claritin, latex, Rezulin, polyvinyl chloride Alternate formulations Glucophage XR, Nexium, Sarafem, Prozac Weekly, Fosamax XR
    49 : Lobbying 1998: agribusiness spent $119.3 million lobbying Congress 1998: environmental groups spent $4.7 million on all issues combined Active lobbying (new laws, not enforce existing laws or fund existing programs) “Lobbying for lethargy” (maintain status quo)
    50 : Lobbying All industry = $1.2 billion/yr (not including campaign contributions and soft money) All single issue ideological groups combined (e.g., pro-choice, anti-abortion, feminist and consumer organizations, senior citizens, etc.) = $76.2 million
    51 : Pharmaceutical Company Advertising $15 billion/year in 2000 over $6 billion - advertising and marketing over $7 billion - sales reps’ salaries up to $15,000/U.S. physician 50,000 salespersons: 1/10 prescribing physicians
    52 : Pharmaceutical Company Advertising – Drug Samples $8 billion/year in samples (10-20% of office visits) Only ½ of samples go to patients Providers dispense samples at 10% - 20% of visits 60% of pharm reps self-medicate
    53 : Drug Samples Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 prohibits sales of samples Requires practitioner signatures Mandates record-keeping Specifies storage conditions JCAHO Standards
    54 : Drug Samples Pros/Cons Alternatives: Coupons Vouchers Medication Assistance Programs
    55 : Truthfulness in Drug AdsWilkes et al.Ann Int Med 1992:116:912-9 10 leading medical journals 109 ads and all available references (82%) 3 independent reviewers
    56 : Truthfulness in Drug Ads: FDA Requirements True statements-effectiveness-contradictions-side effects Balance Instructions for use Approved uses only
    57 : Truthfulness in Drug Ads: Data 57% little of no educational value 40% not balanced 33% misleading headline 30% incorrectly called drug the “agent of choice” 44% could lead to improper prescribing
    58 : Truthfulness in Drug Ads 500 FDA violations from 1997-mid-2001 - includes 90 DTC ads Increased FDA oversight and enforcement needed
    59 : Untruthfulness in Drug Ads: Reasons Advertisement income Business branch handles ads Oversight by journals would be prohibitively expensive
    60 : Truthfulness in Drug Ads Higher percentage of ads misleading in Third World Most agents available OTC Doctors are influenced Prescribing patterns (e.g., Cipro, Calcium Channel Blockers) 1998: Trovan most promoted drug in US; sales most ever for an antibiotic in one year; use since limited by FDA due to liver toxicity
    61 : Doctors are InfluencedFormulary Requests(JAMA 1994;271:684-9) Met with drug rep – 3.4X more likely to request company’s drug Accepted money to attend symposia – 7.9X Accepted money to speak at symposia – 3.9X Accepted money to perform company-sponsored research – 9.5X
    62 : Dubious Advertising Tactics Sponsored symposia and publications “Buying” ghost-written editorials Non-peer-reviewed papers in “throwaway” journals >100 for-profit medical communication companies
    63 : Dubious Advertising Tactics Disorders Made to Order: GAD, Social Anxiety Disorder, ADHD, etc. Sales of antipsychotics quadrupled from 1998-2002 Time-Concepts, Inc. – links doctors with drug reps for a fee
    64 : Direct to Consumer Advertising Began in 1980, briefly banned 1983-85 Expenditures: $155 million—1985 $356 million--1995 $1 billion--1998 $2.8 billion--2000
    65 : Direct to Consumer Advertising US and New Zealand only countries to allow prime time TV advertising 1989 - one drug achieved >10% public recognition 1995 - 13 of the 17 most-heavily marketed 2000 – Schering-Plough spent more to market Claritin than Coca-Cola Enterprises and Anheuser Busch spent to market their products
    66 : Direct to Consumer Advertising:Use of Celebrities Micky Mantle – Voltaren Bob Dole – Viagra Joan Lunden – Claritin “Newman” - Relenza
    67 : Direct to Consumer Advertising Better educated/informed patients Discovery of unrecognized illnesses: diabetes, hypertension, hep C, ED, BPH More proactive patients >1/3 have sought more info, nearly 1/4 asked for drug by name (3/4 of prescribing doctors acceded to request) 2000: 8.5 million received a prescription after viewing ads and specifically requesting drug 50% thought ads received government approval
    68 : Direct to Consumer Advertising Doctors more willing to prescribe requested agents Violations 20 of the first 37 ads failed to comply with FDA regulations; 90 violations from 1997-2001 FDA can request compliance, but cannot impose fines or other punishments FDA must act through the courts (although most companies comply with FDA requests)
    69 : Direct to Consumer Advertising Pfizer fined $6 million for TV ads extolling benefits of Cipro over cheaper generic drugs (or no drugs) for childhood ear infections In Spanish medical journals, nearly half of promotional drug ad statements not supported by cited reference Bush administration has extended investigation period ? more ineffective oversight
    70 : Direct to Consumer Advertising Manufacturers must disclose all known and reasonably knowable risks, whereas physicians need disclose only material risks Increasing liability of pharmaceutical manufacturers for failure to warn patients of risks and adverse events associated with product use e..g., NJ Supreme Court case, Perez vs Wyeth Laboratories, Inc. – failure to adequately warn consumers of Norplant risks
    71 : Direct to Consumer Advertising of Genetic Tests HER2 protein: breast cancer BRCA-1 and -2: breast and ovarian cancers Gaucher’s Disease Newborn screening tests “Jewish genetic conditions”
    72 : Direct to Consumer Advertising of Genetic Tests Overstate the value of genetic tests for clinical care May provide misinformation Exaggerate consumers’ risks Exploit public’s fears/worries Endorse a deterministic relationship between genes and disease Reinforce associations between diseases and ethnic groups
    73 : Direct to Consumer Advertising of Genetic Tests Inappropriate: Public has limited sophistication regarding genetics in general Lack of compreheensive premarket review of tests and oversight of advertisement content Existing FTC and FDA regulations for other types of health-related advertising should be applied to advertisements for genetic tests Gollust SE, et al. JAMA 2002;288:1762-1767.
    74 : Direct to Consumer Marketing of High-Tech Screening Tests E.g., Electron-beam CT / low-dose spiral CT for CAD Scientific and ethical issues Role of “luxury primary care clinics” / links with academia
    75 : Sources of Accurate and Reliable Drug Information The Medical Letter Peer-reviewed studies and reviews The FDA Large databases-The Cochrane Collaboration Textbooks Facts and Comparisons AHFS Drug Evaluations AMA Drug Evaluations Conn’s Current Therapy Not PDR
    76 : Pharmaceutical Industry Research Expensive $150-500 million / new drug Patent protection = 20 years (was 17 until 1993) Pediatric exclusivity – additional 6 months if test for effects in children ? additional $600 million profits Average time from IND application to FDA approval = 10-11 years
    77 : The Drug Approval Process Discovery/Characterization Animal studies- acute toxicity - LD50- Subacute toxicity- Chronic toxicity- Fertility and reproductive effects- Mutagenicity IND Filed (20 approved for every 100 filed)
    78 : The Drug Approval Process Human Testing- Phase I: Pharmacological action, dose tolerance, toxicity, absorption, metabolism, elimination, bioavailability; 50-70 subjects- Phase II: Controlled trials in 100-200 diseased patients; dose-response curve- Phase III: Controlled trials in 800-1000 patients assess safety and efficacy; assess drug interactions, effects in elderly, and effects in liver and kidney disease NDA filed - approved
    79 : FDA Classification of Therapeutic Potential Before 1992:Type A - important therapeutic gainType B - modest therapeutic gainType C - little or no therapeutic gain 1992 Onward:P = priority review, therapeutic gainS = standard review, substantially equivalent
    80 : Controlled Substances Schedule I: No accepted medical use; high abuse potential-LSD, Heroin, ?Marijuana Schedule II: High abuse/dependence potential- Meperidine, Methadone, Oxycodone, Amphetamine, Metlylphendate, Fentanyl, Cocaine
    81 : Controlled Substances Schedule III: Lower abuse potential-Paregoric, Glutethimide, Pentobarbital Schedule IV: Lower abuse potential-Diazepam, Midazolam, Dextropropoxyphene, Pentazocine Schedule V: Low abuse potential- Buprenorphine, Propylhexedrine
    82 : Pharmaceutical Industry Research IND phases 1, 2, and 3 10,000 synthesized/tested compounds 10 enter clinical trials 1 FDA approved
    83 : Issues in Drug Company Research 22% of new drugs developed over the last 2 decades truly innovative (i.e., not “me too” drugs) Unethical studies placebo controlled trials (e.g., anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, anti-emetics, anti-hypertensives, anti-inflammatories, etc...) Third World trials (AIDS/Africa; Surfaxtin (Discovery Labs with J&J/Brazil)
    84 : Seeding Trials Sponsored by sales and marketing dept., rather than research division “Investigators” chosen not for their expertise, but because they prescribe competitor’s drug Study design poor
    85 : Seeding Trials Up to 25% of patients enrolled in clinical trials Disproportionate amount paid for “investigator’s” work (writing a prescription) Physicians more favorable towards than patients
    86 : Issues in Drug Company Research Species extinction/loss of biodiversity Taxol- Yew tree Indigenous peoples’ rights over genetic resources and folk medicine knowledge-U.N. Commission on Biodiversity Patenting genes – right or wrong
    87 : Issues in Drug Company Research Novel therapeutic agents vs. copycat drugs Methodological Flaws Study design bias / invalid comparisons (young patients, inadequate dose of comparison drug) inadequate statistical power multiple exclusion criteria ?
    88 : Issues in Drug Company Research Methodological Flaws (cont.) economic analyses not performed therapeutic benefit claims more often supported by data than claims of less toxicity publication bias – tendency of corporate sponsors to publish only favorable results
    89 : Issues in Drug Company Research 60% of industry-sponsored trials are contracted out to for-profit research firms, which in turn may contract with for-profit NIRBs for ethical review. Industry ethics consultants – watchdogs or showdogs Erosion of medical ethics
    90 : Issues in Drug Company ResearchSymposia Many are drug-company sponsored More likely to have a run-in period (eliminates non-compliers, adverse reactors) Favorable outcomes more likely Misleading titles Brand names Less peer review Promote unapproved uses
    91 : Non-Compliance Short term = 20%Long term (CHF, DM, TB) = 40-60%Long term (other studies):-1/2-2/3 take > 80%-1/3 take 40-80%-remainder < 40% Decreases with increased patient satisfaction No effect of age Illiteracy - 42 million Americans
    92 : Risks of Noncompliance Poorer health outcomes-e.g., CAD/B-Blockers - MI Increases ER visits and hospitalizations-10% of elderly hospitalizations
    93 : Monitoring Compliance Direct Methods Direct observation Pill counts Pharmacy records Serum/urine drug/marker levels Expected biologic effects Electronic medication dispensers
    94 : Monitoring Compliance Indirect Methods Patient interview Asking patients Physician estimate 50% Sensitivity
    95 : Reasons for Noncompliance Poor patient education Cost M.D. awareness poor Doctors more likely to under- than overestimate Dosing frequency Social barriers, public stigmatization
    96 : Improving Compliance Patient education Patient satisfaction Cost consciousness Eliminate copayments
    97 : Improving Compliance Decrease dosing frequency Tailor to specific patient activities Tid > q 8 hours Easy-to-use packaging/pill boxes/alarms
    98 : Adverse Drug Events Improper use by patients $20 billion in direct costs $55 billion indirect costs Prescribing/administrative errors 3-6% of all medical admissions 1.4 medication errors/admission
    99 : Adverse Drug Events(Harvard Medical Practice Study) 6.5 ADEs/100 admissions 1% fatal (est. 140,000 deaths/yr. in U.S.) 12% life-threatening 30% serious 57% insignificant 28% preventable 42% life-threatening and serious reactions
    100 : Adverse Drug Events Error occurred at: -Ordering - 56% -Administration - 34% -Transcription - 6% -Dispensing - 4%
    101 : Adverse Drug Events Analgesics, sedatives, antipsychotics most commonly misused Pharmacoepidemiology/post-marketing surveillance Chloramphenicol - blood dyscrasias DES - clear cell adenoCA of cervix and vagina
    102 : Drug knowledge dissemination Dose and identity checking Patient information availability Order transcription Adverse Drug Events: Reasons
    103 : Adverse Drug Events: Reasons Allergy missed / not noted Medication order tracking Interservice communication Change in hepatic or renal function
    104 : Adverse Drug Events 4th leading cause of death (?) Increased length of stay Increased risk of death Increased costs $2,262 - $4,685 per inpatient event
    105 : Alternative Medicine expenditures = $27 billion out of pocket in 1997 $17.8 billion on supplements in 2001 12% use herbs in one year (vs. 2.5% in 1990) $5.1 billion in out-of-pocket payments 46% of patients use an unconventional therapy
    106 : Alternative Medicine Between 1996 and 1998, 8% of normal-weight women and 28% of obese women used non-prescription weight loss products More CAM visits than PCP visits in 1997 72% do not inform their physicians
    107 : Efficacy of Herbal Products Gingko biloba – possible minimal effects on dementia; likely unhelpful for intermittent claudication Side effects: HA, N, D, skin rash, cerebral or extracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Hawthorne extracts – likely unhelpful for cardiovascular disease Side effects: GI, palpitations, chest pain, circulatory disturbances and vertigo with high doses; may enhance positive inotropic effects of digoxin
    108 : Efficacy of Herbal Products Saw palmetto – possible mild decrease in BPH symptoms, unknown effects on long-term outcomes, development of prostate CA Side effects: mild, GI, similar to placebo St. John’s Wart – unlikely to help depression Side effects: GI, dizziness, confusion, dry mouth, restlessness, HA, skin rash, sexual dysfunction, frequent urination, phototoxicity, mania psychositic relapses in schizophrenia patients, serotonin syndrome in users of SSRIs Echinacea and Vitamin C – unlikely to prevent or modify common colds
    109 : Risks Of Herbal And “Naturopathic” Remedies Manufacturer may claim that the product affects the structure of function of the body, as long as there is no claim of effectiveness for the prevention or treatment of a specific disease, and provided there is a disclaimer informing the user that the FDA has not evaluated the agents Multiple violations / near violations
    110 : Risks Of Herbal And “Naturopathic” Remedies Products unregulated/untested Variable collection processing storage naming purity
    111 : Risks Of Herbal And “Naturopathic” Remedies Adulterants and contaminants include: Botanicals – e.g., digitalis, belladonna Microorganisms – Staph aureus, E coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas Microbial toxins – aflatoxins, bacterial endotoxins Pesticides Fumigation agents Toxic metals – lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic Drugs – analgesics and antiinflammatories, corticosteroids, benzodiazepines, warfarin, fenfluramine, sildenafil
    112 : Risks Of Herbal And “Naturopathic” Remedies Est. less than 1% of adverse reactions reported to FDA (vs. 10% est. for prescription drugs) 19,468 adverse events reports to poison control centers in 1998, vs. 500 to FDA Potential toxicities: cardiac, CNS, liver, kidney High risk users: Elderly, pregnant and nursing women, infants Poor overall health status Chronic users, prescription drug users
    113 : Risks of Herbal and “Naturopathic” Remedies Dietary supplements containing ephedrine, caffeine HTN, MI, CVA, psychosis, seizures Chapparal, germander, comfrey, skullcap, sassafras Hepatotoxic, carcinogenic Contaminated L-tryptophan Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome
    114 : Risks of Herbal and “Naturopathic” Remedies GE-L-tryptophan ? EMS (1989): 5,000 in US affected, 37 deaths, 1500 permanently disabled Heart attacks, dysrhythmias, strokes and seizures from ephedra Bleeding from garlic, gingko, and ginseng hypoglycemia from ginseng
    115 : Risks of Herbal and “Naturopathic” Remedies potentiation of anesthetic effects by kava and valerian increased metabolism of many drugs by St. John’s wort ?CyA effectiveness secondary to St John’s Wort ? transplant rejection 1998: 32% of Asian patent medicines sold in the US contained undeclared pharmaceuticals or heavy metals
    116 : Glucosamine/Chondroitin Meta-analysis showed unlikely to be beneficial for RA and OA Major source = sharks Mass extinction; 70% of world’s fisheries are fully exploited to overexploited; 75-85% reduction of US coastal shark species over last 10 yrs large “gray market” in shark products
    117 : Pet Pharmaceuticals $3 billion market Clonicalm (clomipramine) for separation anxiety in dogs Anipryl (seligeline) for canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome “Sea pet” shark cartilage treats for doggie arthritis
    118 : Blurring the line between drugs and cosmetics 1999 spending on cosmetics: Hair care products: $8 billion Skin care products: $8 billion Makeup: $6 billion (women devote an average of 19 minutes per day to their faces) Fragrance: $6 billion Fingernail items: $1 billion
    119 : Botox Botulinum toxin: Cause of botulism potential biowarfare/bioterror agent Medical Uses: blepharospasm, spasmodic torticollis, certain types of wrinkles Unlikely to work on sun- or smoking-induced wrinkles
    120 : Botox Manufacturer = Allergan 1.6 million patients, $309.5 million sales ($100 million for cosmetic uses) in 2001 Sales expected to top $1 billion/year Upcoming $39 million direct-to-consumer ad campaign $80/dose + physician’s fee ($300 to $1,000)
    121 : Botox Most users white, age 35-50 12% are men In-home Botox parties; Botox scams Hollywood actors Potential future uses: migraines, back spasms, chronic pain, axillary hyperhidrosis
    122 : Botox Retreatments required q 3-4 months Side effects: masklike facies, slackness and drooling, rare allergic reactions Rivals = collagen injections (from cows, possible allergic responses), Perlane (“natural” collagen alternative from human tissue), Myobloc, face lift/eyelid surgery
    123 : Under- and overuse of antibiotics MDR TB in Russian prisons bronchitis and viral URIs in the US Recent decrease in use in children and adolescents, although still excessive Pet superstores and websites sell multiple antibiotics
    124 : Factory Farms, Antibiotics and Anthrax: Putting Profits Before Public Health Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP
    125 : Outline Factory Farming Agricultural Antibiotics Cipro and Anthrax Bayer Conclusions
    126 : Factory Farming Factory farms have replaced industrial factories as the # 1 polluters of American waterways 1.4 billion tons animal waste generated/yr 130 x human waste
    127 : Factory Farming Cattle manure 1.2 billion tons Pig manure 116 million tons Chicken droppings 14 million tons
    128 : Factory Farm Waste Overall number of hog farms down from 600,000 to 157,000 over the last 15yrs, while # of factory hog farms up 75% 1 hog farm in NC generates as much sewage annualy as all of Manhattan
    129 : Factory Farm Waste Most untreated Ferments in open pools Seeps into local water supply, estuaries Kills fish Causes human infections - e.g., Pfisteria pescii, Chesapeake Bay Creates unbearable stench Widely disseminated by floods/hurricanes
    130 : Agricultural Antibiotic Use Agriculture accounts for 70% of U.S. antibiotic use Use up 50% over the last 15 years Almost 8 billion animals per year “treated” to “promote growth” Larger animals, fewer infections in herd
    131 : Consequences of Agricultural Antibiotic Use Campylobacter fluoroquinolone resistance VREF (poss. due to avoparcin use in chickens)
    132 : Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens CDC: “Antibiotic use in food animals is the dominant source of antibiotic resistance among food-borne pathogens.” $4billion/yr to treat antibiotic-resistant infections in humans
    133 : Alternatives to Agricultural Antibiotic Use Decrease overcrowding Better diet/sanitation/living conditions Control heat stress Vaccination Increased use of bacterial cultures and specific antibiotic treatment in animals when indicated
    134 : Alternatives to Agricultural Antibiotic Use: Vegetarianism ? water/grain needs ? animal fecal waste ? rendering/mad cow disease ? rBGH (? ?IGF-1 in milk) Health benefits Meatpacking = most dangerous job in US
    135 : Alternatives to Agricultural Antibiotic Use: Vegetarianism European Union bans antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed (1/06)
    136 : Food-Borne Illness ¼ of US population affected per year Each day 200,000 sickened, 900 hospitalized, 14 die ?d in part due to ?ing centralization of meat supply e.g., E. coli OH157
    137 : Campylobacter Most common food-borne infection in US 2.5 million case of diarrhea and 100 deaths per year
    138 : Campylobacter Resistance to Fluoroquinolones Increasing 13% in 1998, 18% in 1999 Fluoroquinolone use up 40% over same period Continues to increase FDA proposed ban on fluoroquinolone use in poultry Supported by APHA, PSR and others
    139 : Fluoroquinolones Animal Use Sarafloxacin (Saraflox) – Abbott Labs – voluntarily withdrawn from market Enrofloxacin (Baytril) – Bayer– FDA withdraws approval (7/05) Human Use Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) - Bayer
    140 : Anthrax Cipro – patent expires 2004 Doxycycline – generic Penicillin - generic Huge potential profits 280 million Americans, others 20-25% increase in Cipro sales one month after 2001 anthrax mailings, per the nation’s largest PBM
    141 : Cipro Best selling antibiotic in the world for the last 8 years Eleventh most prescribed drug in the US 20th in US sales 1999 gross sales = $1.04 billion
    142 : Bayer and Cipro 1997 onward – Bayer pays Barr Pharmaceuticals and two other competitors $200 million not to manufacture generic ciprofloxacin, despite a federal judge’s 1995 decision allowing it to do so 2002 – Bayer granted six months additional patent on Cipro, under pediatric extension bill, in exchange for conducting safety and efficacy tests on children
    143 : Cost of Cipro Drugstore = $4.50/pill US government = $0.95/pill for anthrax stockpile (twice what is paid under other government-sponsored public health programs)
    144 : Cost of Cipro US government has the authority, under existing law, to license generic production of ciprofloxacin by other companies for as little as $0.20/pill in the event of a public health emergency It has failed to do so Canada did override Bayer’s patent and ordered 1 million tablets from a Canadian manufacturer
    145 : Why? Weakening of case at WTO meetings that the massive suffering consequent to 25 million AIDS cases in Sub-Saharan Africa did not constitute enough of a public health emergency to permit those countries to obtain and produce cheaper generic versions of largely unavailable AIDS drugs -Africa accounts for 1% of world drug sales
    146 : Other Consequences Opens door to other situations involving parallel importing and compulsory licensing Threatens pharmaceutical industry’s massive profits the most profitable industry in the US Weakens pharmaceutical industry’s grip on legislators $80 million dollars spent on lobbying in 2000 election Revolving door between legislators, lobbyists, executives and government officials
    147 : Bayer Based in Leverkusen, Germany 120,000 employees worldwide Annual sales = $28 billion US = largest market
    148 : Bayer Pharmaceuticals Third largest manufacturer of herbicides in the world Dominates insecticide market
    149 : Bayer Number one biotech company in Europe (after 2001 purchase of Aventis CropScience) Controls over half of genetically-modified crop varieties up for approval for commercial use Risks of GMOs
    150 : History of Bayer WW I: invented modern chemical warfare; developed “School for Chemical Warfare” WW II: part of IG Farben conglomerate, which exploited slave labor at Auschwitz, conducted unethical human subject experiments
    151 : History of Bayer Early 1990s – admitted knowingly selling HIV-tainted blood clotting products which infected up to 50% of hemophiliacs in some developed countries US Class action suits settled for $100,000 per claimant European taxpayers left to foot most of bill
    152 : History of Bayer 1995 onward - failed to follow promise to withdraw its most toxic pesticides from the market Failed to educate farmers in developing nations re pesticide health risks 2 to 10 million poisonings / 200,000 deaths per year due to pesticides (WHO)
    153 : History of Bayer 1998 –pays Scottish adult volunteers $750 to swallow doses of the insecticide Guthion to “prove product’s safety” Suing the FDA to lift moratorium on human-derived data 2000 – cited by FDA and FTC for misleading claims regarding aspirin and heart attacks/strokes
    154 : History of Bayer 2000 – fined by OSHA for workplace safety violations related to MDA (carcinogen) exposures 2000 – fined by Commerce Dept. for violations of export laws
    155 : History of Bayer 2001 – FDA-reported violations in quality control contribute to worldwide clotting factor shortage for hemophiliacs 2002 - Baycol (cholesterol lowering drug) withdrawn from market
    156 : Bayer’s Corporate Agenda Bluewash: signatory to UN’s Global Compact Greenwash: “crop protection” (pesticides) Promotion of anti-environmental health agenda: “Wise Use,” “Responsible Care” movements
    157 : Bayer’s Corporate Agenda Corporate Front Groups: “Global Crop Protection Federation” Harrassment / SLAPP suits against watchdog groups e.g., Coalition Against Bayer Dangers
    158 : Bayer’s Corporate Agenda Lobbying / Campaign donations / Influence peddling: Member of numerous lobbying groups attacking “trade barriers” (i.e., environmental health and safety laws) $600,000 over last five years to US politicians $120,000 to GW Bush’s election campaign
    159 : Bayer Fortune Magazine (2001): one of the “most admired companies” in the United States Multinational Monitor (2001): one of the 10 worst corporations of the year
    160 : Conclusions Triumph of corporate profits and influence-peddling over urgent public health needs Stronger regulation needed over: Agricultural antibiotic use Drug pricing Stiffer penalties for corporate malfeasance necessary (fines and jail time) Important role of medical/public health organizations and the media
    161 : Frankenfoods (aka “Brave New Foods”) Genetically-engineered seeds are now being used to plant 25% of America’s corn crop, 30% of it’s soybeans, and 50% of canola At least 60% of convenience foods now sold in the U.S. contain genetically-altered ingredients No labeling required FDA and EPA: Genetically-altered foods “have not been shown to be unsafe.” 1998 Nature study - transgenic traits 20x more likely to “flow” to other plants by cross-pollination
    162 : Frankenfoods Bacillus thuringiensis corn - resistant to the corn-boring bug, but pollen from corn lands on milkweed, which monarch butterfly larvae and caterpillars eat ? death. Beans and grains with more protein caffeine-less coffee beans strawberries packed with more natural sugars red grass, mauve carnations Companies - Shell, Monsanto, Mitsubishi, Sandoz, Aventis, Pharmacia, Hoechst
    163 : Frankenfoods FDA being sued for allowing genetically-engineered foods on the market without adequate safety review FDA reviewer worked for Monsanto before and after his FDA tenure Majority of Americans unaware GM foods already widely marketed Japan - labeling common; India - bans testing of altered crops; British Medical Association has called for a ban on testing and production
    164 : Excessive Paper Packaging in Pharmaceutical Samples Paper packaging 39% of US garbage; only 42% recycled; landfill space decreasing Deforestation One of each IM clinic drug samples: paper packaging 65% of overall package weight pill volume/paper product box volume = 0.0132 Sample packages large, waste paper, take up excessive space
    165 : The History of U.S. Drug Regulation 1785: Massachusetts - first food adulteration law 1848: Drug Importation Act – prohibits importation of unsafe or adulterated drugs 1902: Biologics Control Act – gives government regulatory power over antitoxin and vaccine development
    166 : The History of Drug Regulation 1906: Pure Food and Drug Law(The Jungle) 1912: Shirley Amendment-makes false advertising illegal 1914: Harrison Narcotic Act-criminalizes distribution and possession of certain psychoactive drugs (1960s - LSD, 1980s - Ecstasy)
    167 : The History of U.S. Drug Regulation 1927: Caustic Poison Act-warning labels, antidote information required 1938: Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act-establishes FDA -Drug safety required pre-marketing -diethylene glycol in Elixir of Sulfonamide
    168 : The History of U.S. Drug Regulation Early 1940’s-animal testing required before human testing 1951: Durham-Humphrey Amendment-differentiates prescription from non-prescription drugs 1958: Food Additives Amendment-requires premarketing safety (not benefit)-Olestra, folate-Delaney Clause
    169 : The History of U.S. Drug Regulation 1962: Kefauver-Harris Amendment-response to thalidomide crisis-requires pre-marketing effectiveness 1974: Proxmire Amendment: -“nutritional supplements are not drugs”
    170 : The History of Drug Regulation 1976: Medical Device Amendment 1977: Pregnant and (potentially pregnant) women excluded from drug trials-overturned in 1993 1977: Saccharin Labeling Act
    171 : The History of U.S. Drug Regulation 1981: Drug Ad Regulations passed 1982: Tamper-Resistant Packaging Regulations-Tylenol/Cyanide 1983: Orphan Drug Act- 5000 diseases affecting < 200,000 Americans- Financial incentives (increased patent protection, 50% tax breaks, research funding) - 700 drugs
    172 : The History of U.S. Drug Regulation ODA: More than 40 drugs developed, including 28 new molecular entities-Ceredase, rHGH, r-EPO-Controversies -1991 Modification (patent lapses after $200 million in cumulative sales) 1984: Drug Price Competition and Patent Restoration Act-generic bioequivalance, rather than therapeutic equivalence, now required for approval
    173 : The History of U.S. Drug Regulation 1994: Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act -supplements excluded from purity, composition, effectiveness and safety review -supported by Orrin Hatch (R-Utah), recipient of $169,000 from pharm ind in 2000, more than any other Senator)-Office of Dietary Supplements established at NIH
    174 : The FDA: Current Issues Nicotine/Cigarette regulation Policies re transgenic foods Guidelines on industry-sponsored events, texts and reprints, gifts, speakers fees Codes of conduct, renunciation of human rights abuses (e.g., use of pharmaceuticals in lethal injections)
    175 : The FDA: Current Issues Waiver of informed consent during wartime -Pyridostigmine-Botulinum-toxoid vaccine Regulation of drug promotion on the Internet-links between websites-international issues-chatrooms and newsgroups Funding/existence uncertain-S.B. 830
    176 : The FDA Modernization and Accountability Act of 1997 (SB-830) Cuts from 2 to 1 the number of trials required to show efficacy and safety for new drugs and devices Allows manufacturers to make unproved claims regarding the costs and health care consequences of their products to bulk purchasers Allows device manufacturers to choose their own safety/efficacy reviewer, with whom they can negotiate payment terms directly Removes mandatory post-marketing surveillance of implantable medical devices
    177 : US Drug Regulation 2002: The Best Pharmaceuticals Act for Children Extends patent protection when companies promise to conduct additional studies in children No oversight mechanism Ethical issues re drug research in children
    178 : FDA Oversight 2100 scientists in 40 labs in Washington, D.C. and around the U.S. 1100 investigators and inspectors Monitor and inspect 95,000 FDA-regulated businesses Visit >15,000 facilities per year Collect 80,000 domestic and imported product samples for label checks
    179 : FDA Oversight 3000 products per year found to be unfit for consumers and withdrawn from marketplace 30,000 import shipments per year declined at port of entry because the goods appear to be unacceptable for use in the United States
    180 : FDA Oversight U.S. outpaces Germany and Japan (and equals the UK) in rate of approving new drugs Avg. time to approval 14 mos (2000) vs 34 mos (1993) Regulation success stories-thalidomide
    181 : FDA Oversight “Me too” drugs vs. “new molecular entities” FDA approved 341 NMEs from 1991-2001 User fees speed review and approval >$300,000/drug Over half of FDA scientific experts conducting drug application review have financial conflicts of interest because of industry ties.
    182 : FDA Oversight 17 FDA-initiated market withdrawals, 1970-1995-temafloxocin, flosequinan, Redux, Rezulin, etc. 9 withdrawals over last 6 years Lotronex (off/on), Rezulin, Duract, Policor, Trovan, Raxar, Baycol, etc.
    183 : FDA Oversight: Recalls and Safety Alerts 52 advisories involving 408,500 pacemakers and 114,645 ICDs from 1/90 - 12/00 increasing rate between 1995 and 2000 Over 1000 devices recalled each year 1.3 million device checks and analyses 36,187 device replacements $870 million
    184 : FDA Oversight Ad review and phase 4 studies (post-marketing surveillance) underfunded ($17 million annually for safety review = amount Americans spend on prescription drugs in 90 minutes) completion rates of phase 4 commitments <10% more than half the experts hired to advise the FDA on drug safety have industry ties At 55% of FDA meetings between 1/98 and 6/00, at least half the members had a financial stake in the proceedings
    185 : Criminal activities FTC investigating Astra-Zeneca for blocking generic competition for Prilosec; Bristol-Meyers Squibb for illegally preventing competitors from selling generic versions of Taxol Mylan laboratories for illegally tying up chemical feed-stocks used to make generic lorazepam Hoechst for preventing Cardizem CD from going generic
    186 : Criminal activities Schering-Plough charged with paying $90 million to 2 competitors to postpone introduction of generic versions of K-Dur Pfizer to pay $49 million for Medicaid fraud re Lipitor charges Schering-Plough to pay $500 million in connection with production o 125 different drugs in factories that failed to comply with good manufacturing practices
    187 : Criminal activities Lilly pleaded guilty to criminal charges for withholding information from the FDA about deaths and life-threatening drug reactions due to Oraflex 49 deaths + 1,000 serious injuries $45,000 fine SmithKline/Selacryn 36 deaths; 500 cases of liver and kidney damage $34,000 fine
    188 : Criminal activities Wholesale price manipulation Bayer AG, Abbott Labs, SmithKline Beecham, Glaxo Wellcome, and Bristol-Myers Squibb under investigation by HCFA for overcharging Medicare and Medicaid at least $1 billion/year Vitamin price fixing Guilty pleas and fines: Hoffman LaRoche, BASF AG, Aventis SA, Takeda, Eisai, and Daichi
    189 : Investigations / Possible Criminal Activities Justice Department investigating: Metabolife for falsification of ephedra safety data Merck and Co. and Briston-Myers Squibb for sales and accounting practices Johnson and Johnson for alleged manufacturing improprieties in Puerto Rico Warner-Lambert for hiding dangers of Rezulin
    190 : Investigations / Possible Criminal Activities ?Criminal charges? Albuterol-less inhalers from Schering Plough sloppy manufacturing; delayed recall NEJM Editor Drazen cited by FDA in 1999 for making “false and misleading” statements about levalbuterol
    191 : Drug Companies Behaving Badly:The 10 Worst Corporations of 2002*Multinational Monitor Wyeth Revealed that Ayerst (subsidiary) had funded Dr Robert Wilson’s 1966 book “Feminine Forever” Labeling menopause as a disease, promoting HRT as “cure” for maintenance of beauty Schering Plough: Justice Dept. investigation for price-fixing Federal investigation of Medicaid fraud $500 million fine for repeated failures to fix manufacturing plant problems in NJ and Puerto Rico
    192 : Third World “Donations” (Dumping) of Pharmaceuticals Genuine gifts Dubious “gifts” -- reasons:-clear out stocks of nearly-expired drugs/poor sellers-tax write-offs (up to 2x production costs)
    193 : Third World “Donations” (Dumping) of Pharmaceuticals Egregious Examples:-Expired Ceclor to Central Africa-Garlic pills and TUMS to Rwanda -50% of donations to Bosnia expired or medically worthless Recommendations:-WHO list of essential drugs-Expired date at least 1 year away
    194 : Anti-AIDS Drugs and Africa 36 million infected with HIV; 2/3 in sub-Saharan Africa (1.3% of global pharmaceutical market) Only 1/1000 S. African AIDS patients getting anti-HIV drugs PHRMA lawsuit vs South Africa (supported by US govt) parallel importing compulsory licensing dropped after activist campaign US donation to UN AIDS Relief Fund = $200 million
    195 : The FDA: The Future Trade name review prior to marketing approval-Losec/Lasix Mandated patient package inserts Criminal sanctions for repeat advertising regulations violators Simplify oversight-problems with benzodiazepine triplicate forms International clinical trials registry
    196 : The Internet and Pharmaceuticals New website created q 3 seconds 1/4 of websites have health information Unethical sales (e.g., Viagra) AMA and FDA oppose on-line prescribing; states passing laws to prohibit
    197 : The Internet and Pharmaceuticals Free software / Physician profiling “ePocrates” Internet pharmacies $1.9 billion sales (1999); expected to reach $20-25 billion by 2005 privacy concerns
    198 : Physician Prescribing Habits Influences-texts, journals, colleagues, marketing and advertising-ego bias-how benefits presented-average vs stratified life expectancy gains-NNT-Cost effectiveness-how side effects presented -# affected vs # withdrawing from study
    199 : Physician Prescribing Habits Influences-texts, journals, colleagues, marketing, and advertising-ego bias-how benefits presented-average vs stratified life expectancy gainsNNT-Cost effectiveness-how side effects presented-# affected vs # withdrawing from study
    200 : Physician Prescribing Habits Up to 85% of residents prescribe to non-patients 50% of residents self-prescribe early 1990s - benzos 2000 - SSRIS for depression, antihistamines for sleep
    201 : Pharmaceuticals Sales Reps’ Techniques Appeal to authority Appeal to popularity The “red herring” Appeal to pity (Dryden - “Pity melts the mind”)
    202 : Pharmaceuticals Sales Reps’ Techniques Appeal to curiosity Free food/gifts Testimonials Relationship building/face time
    203 : Pharmaceutical Sales Reps’ Techniques Active learning -- reinforcement plus change Favorable but inaccurate statements Negative comments re competitors’ products Reprints not conforming to FDA regulations
    204 : Relating to Pharmaceutical Reps Awareness of sales tactics Question them, ask for references Level of presence-open vs locked-out (it would cost < $100,000/yr to feed 30 residents lunch each weekday) -benefits/harms
    205 : Academia and Industry US R&D (2000): industry - $55-60 billion federal government - $25 billion private foundations - $8-10 billion Industry funds 8-40% of university research (a 7-fold increase since 1970)
    206 : Academia and Industry 1991: 80% of industry sponsored clinical trials performed in non-profit academic medical centers 70¢ of every pharmaceutical industry research dollar 2001: 40% (60% in CROs) 34¢
    207 : CROs and SMOs Contract Research Organizations (CROs): provide central oversight and management of clinical trials Site Management Organizations (SMOs): organize physicians’ offices into trial networks and oversee the rapid recruitment of patients
    208 : Academia and Industry 3-fold increase in the number of physicians conducting “research” in the last decade “Investigators” can make from $500 to $6000 per enrolled subject Active recruiters can make from $500,000 to $1 million per year
    209 : Unfunded Studies 23% in 1 month-53% of these were case series 29% involved unaccounted-for direct clinical costs-?passed on to patients or 3rd party payers?
    210 : Academia and Industry Majority of authors of Clinical Practice Guidelines have industry ties Authors of NEJM reviews and editorials can accept up to $10,000/year in speaking and consulting fees from each company about whose products they are writing
    211 : Academia and Industry Increasing exclusive university - corporate agreements MIT – 5 yr, $15 million deal with Merck and Co. for patent rights to joint discoveries DFCI – Novartis Many other examples
    212 : Academia, Industry and Medical Research 1999-2001: Federal authorities restricted or shut down human subject research at 9 universities E.g., Jesse Geisinger case at U Penn: Gene therapy experiment Not disclosed to patient: University had equity stake in the company sponsoring the study Reports of serious adverse events and deaths in monkeys
    213 : Academia - Industry Collaboration ¼ of scientific investigators have industry affiliations 2/3 of academic institutions hold equity in start-ups that sponsor research at the same institutions Up to 80% of science and engineering faculty perform outside consultations Academic entrepreneurs, patents-e.g., Herbert Boyer, U.C.S.F., Genentech
    214 : Collaboration Difficulties Complicated university beaureacracies/regulations - 50% Disputes over intellectual property - 34% Changes in academic research focus - 33% Conflict of interest - 30% Misconduct/poor science - 12%
    215 : Collaboration Difficulties Impaired sharing of knowledge, materials Difficulty in repeating/verifying important research Driven by usual academic competitive jealousies, fears of contract violations and subsequent litigation, and desire to protect financial interests and keep stock prices high
    216 : Educational Concerns Regarding Industry Funded Research Diversion of faculty away from teaching, towards more remunerative consultations Faculty change research direction Fellows/post-docs diverted to industry-related topics Publication delays affect career development
    217 : Concerns Re Research in the U.S. Inverse relationship between growth in NIH awards during the past decade and managed care penetration Decreasing funding for patient-oriented research Low enrollment causing delays in evaluating cancer medications (< 5% of patients participate in clinical trials) Insurance coverage of clinical trials decreasing
    218 : Withholding of Data Only 12% of university conflict of interest policies specify limits on permissible delays in publication Reasons for withholding of data:-Competition-Recognition/protect scientific lead-Patent application-Intellectual property disputes Results of withholding of data:-Unnecessary duplication-Slows development and testing of new drugs
    219 : Withholding of Data: Examples Chamberlin family - obstetrical forceps UCSF Synthroid study (Boots/Knoll Pharmaceuticals) JAMA Celebrex (Pharmacia) study: fewer ulcers than ibuprofen at 6 months, but no difference at one year (only 6 month data submitted and published) comparisons with genetic code implications for health services research, public health
    220 : Industry/Special Interest Groups and Researchers CDC gun violence studies - NRA Breast Implants - Congress, Women’s Groups Lead exposure studies - (Needleman) - lead industry
    221 : Industry/Special Interest Groups and Researchers Spinal fusion - North American Spine Society, pedicle screw manufacturers Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome - patient advocacy groups, attorneys, immunodiagnostic testing labs Pharmaceutical company / tobacco company financial ties, conflicts of interest
    222 : Harassment of Researchers Betty Dong/UCSF (Synthroid) - Boots/Knoll Pharmaceuticals Nancy Oliveri/University of Toronto (deferipone) - Apotex UCSF (Remimmune) - Immune Response Corporation
    223 : Harassment of Researchers David Healy/University of Toronto (Prozac) - Eli Lilly Anne Holbrook/McMaster U/ PUD-GERD panel (Prilosec) - Astra Zeneca David Kern/Brown U (“flock workers’ lung) – Microfibres Tobacco companies – multiple lawsuits against universities
    224 : The Pharmaceutical Industry and Medical Ethics Funding of conferences, Centers of Ethics, individual investigators E.g., $1 million gift from SmithKline Beecham to Stanford University Center for Biomedical Ethics Rapid growth of for-profit non-institutional review boards (NIRBs) Using patents to inhibit other companies’ research The Tragedy of the Anti-Commons
    225 : The Pharmaceutical Industry and Medical Ethics Ethics consultants serving on corporate boards E.g., Harold Shapiro continued to draw annual director’s salary from Dow Chemical while serving as Chair of NBAC Most bioethics journals do not require conflict of interest disclosures Loss of appearance of independence; damage to credibility Pharmaceutical industry involvement in research and production of chemical warfare agents and drugs used to facilitate executions
    226 : Recommendations for Industry-Sponsored Research Written agreements with university, not researcher Alternatives selected based on clinical relevance Stepwise project results not provided to sponsor until study is funded and open publication guaranteed
    227 : Recommendations for Industry-Sponsored Research Full disclosure of conflicts of interest No gag clauses regarding publication Investigator not to act as consultant during study Database of clinical trials
    228 : Industry/Special Interest Groups and Researchers/Societies Pork barrel research funding - Congress c.f., legislating medical practice - e.g., drive-through deliveries APHA: Colgate-Palmolive; AHA: Genentech; AMA - Sunbeam (dissolved)
    229 : AMA Guidelines Re Gifts to Physicians from Industry Minimal value gifts O.K. -pens, notepads, modest meals, textbooks Film, videos, CDs; “Dinner to Go” (Merck); “Look for a Book” GlaxoSmithKline PLC); Palm Pilots (Dupont) No cash gifts
    230 : AMA Guidelines Re Gifts to Physicians from Industry No gifts with strings attached CME sponsorship money to conference sponsor, not participating physicians Meeting expenses for trainees funneled through institution
    231 : AMA Guidelines Re Gifts to Physicians from Industry AMA $1 million “educational” campaign: - $325,000 from AMA - 9 drug companies to contribute the rest Vermont law now requires physicians to disclose all gifts over $25
    232 : Patients’ Attitudes Toward Pharmaceutical Company Gifts(Gibbons et al.) 200 patients, 270 physicians 1/2 of patients aware 1/4 believe their doctor(s) accepted gifts 1/3 felt costs passed along to patients Patients felt gifts less appropriate then did physicians Physicians and patients disagree on appropriateness of seeding trial payments (La Puma, et al.)
    233 : Guidelines for Speakers at Industry-Sponsored Events Educational, not promotional Based on scientific data and clinical experience Full disclosure of relationship with company and honoraria Travel expenses not lavish Few mechanisms for surveillance/guideline enforcement
    234 : Trends to Watch For Drug companies buying health providers-Zeneca Group/Salick Health Care Drug companies purchasing Pharmaceutical Benefits Managers and Disease Management Groups
    235 : Trends to Watch For Medical school / drug company alliances Novartis - UC Berkeley; Pharmacia - Wash U. in St Louis; Ribazyme - Univ. of CO; Pfizer -BIH; Novartis -DFCI; Shiseido - MGH CME - Medical Education and Communication Companies paid mainly by drug companies; provide “educational” materials gratis 1/2 of the $1.1 billion spent on CME in 1999
    236 : Human Experimentation: US and Abroad 90% of health research dollars are spent on the health problems of 10% of the world’s population - research on major diseases of the developing world underfunded, not profitable Third World experimentation with inappropriate placebo-controls: AIDS drugs/Africa; Sulfazyme/Brazil Stop-gap source of care / meds for poor
    237 : Human Experimentation: US and Abroad Human Experimentation Companies For-Profit IRBs Private-practice-based “investigators”
    238 : Enhancing Cooperation Between Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry Improving compliance Decreasing adverse events Promotion and funding of basic science and clinical research
    239 : Conclusions Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Industries-Tremendous contributions to health-Motivation = “alleviate suffering”-Primary responsibility = “make money for shareholders” Awareness of worrisome trends in the business of drugs, research and health care Advocate locally and nationally for solutions
    240 : Useful Phone Numbers FDA and Regulated Products Info1-800-222-0185 Medwatch/Adverse Events Reporting1-800-332-1088 Advertising/Promotion/Marketing Concerns1-800-238-7332 Prescription Drug Indigent Programs1-800-PMA-INFO Medications Assistance Program (OHSU)x4-1457
    241 : Contact Information Public Health and Social Justice Website http://www.phsj.org martindonohoe@phsj.org

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