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    1 : ANTAMOOL BY DEEPENDRA SINGH KORANGA DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES , KUMAUN UNIVERSITY, NAINITAL
    2 : ANTAMOOL INDIAN IPECAC
    3 : TOPICS SYNONYMS BIOLOGICAL SOURCE HISTORY & GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS USES & DOSAGE PHARMACOLOGY REFERENCES
    4 : SYNONYMS Common name: Indian Ipecac, Indian ipecacuahna Hindi: ?????? Antamul, Jangli pikvam Marathi: Khadari, Pitthakaadi, Pitthamaari, Pitvel Tamil: Naippalai, Nancaruppan Malayalam: Nansjera-patsja, Vallippala Telugu: Kakapala, Tellayadala, Verripala Kannada: Antamula, Nipaladaberu, Aadumuttada gida Bengali: ?????? Antamul Oriya: Mendi, Mulini Assamese: ?????? Antamul Sanskrit: Lataksiri, Shwasaghni ,Antrapachaka
    5 : BIOLOGICAL SOURCE Part used: leaves & roots Botanical name: Tylophora indica  , Tylophora asthmatica Family: Asclepiadaceae
    6 : HISTORY & GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE It grows widely in planes & hilly places of india up to an altitude of 1,000 m. It is mostly found in the sub-himalayan tract from Uttarakhand to Meghalaya and in the central and peninsular India. Bengal, Assam, Andhra Pradesh Orissa & Southern india The leaves and roots of tylophora have been included in the Bengal Pharmacopoeia since 1884. The plant can be propogated easily in vitro from mature leaf extplant by the formation of multiple adventious shoot buds without callus intervention.
    7 : CHARACTERISTICS It is a twining,evergreen plant with fleshy roots. Leaves: 5-10 c.m. long, 2.5-5.7 c.m. wide ovate Color: plant- pale yellow brown , flower-yellow. No marked odour Taste : sweetish & subsequent acrid taste
    8 : CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS Aerial part contain pheanthroindolizidine alkaloids like tylophorine, tylophorinine, tylophorinidine & septicine. Alkaloids: Tyloindicines, isotylocrebrine, anhydrodehydrotylophorinine, anhydrodehydrotylophorinidine, 4,6-desdimethylisotylocrebrine & 5-hydroxy-0-methylophorinidine have been reported. Non-alkaloid compounds-Kaempferol,quercetin, a- amyrins, actacosanyl octacosonoate, stigmasterol, -sitosterol, tyloindane,cetyl alcohol, wax, resin, pigments, tennin, glucose, calcium salt, potassium chloride. Steam distillation of an alcoholic extract of the air dried root powder gave p-methoxy salicylaldehyde & a small amount of oily matter.
    9 : USES & DOSAGE Dried leaves are emetic, expectorant & Useful in overloaded states of the stomach. It has been used for the treatment of various respiratory problems besides asthma, including allergies, bronchitis and colds, as well as dysentery and oseteoarthritis pain. The root posses stimulant emetic, cathortic, expectorant, expectorant, diaphoretic (sweating) properties & are used in asthma bronchitis, early stage of whooping cough, dysentery & diarrhea Tylophora is also still recommended for some of its other traditional uses, including hay fever, bronchitis and the common cold. Power of dried leaves is used as substituent of ipecac. Used in fever ( malarious origin ) combined with quinine Antiamoebic activity. Gouty pains Good natural preservative( bacteriostatic properties). Blood purifier. Antihistaminic.
    10 : PHARMACOLOGY  Alcoholic extract and total alkaloid produced cns depression, myocardial depression, fall of blood pressure, non specific relaxationof smooth muscle. Tylophorine cause cns depression,potentiate Phenobarbital sleep-ing time. It inhibit systemic anaphylaxis & response of adjuant induce arthritis in rat. Extract of this showed good smooth muscle relaxant, antihistamine,hypotensive & antitumour activity. Anti asthmatic activity has been found to act by the direct stimulation of adrenal cortex. Alcoholic extract of plant inhibit phagocytosis in mice.
    11 : REFERENCES

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