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    Add as Friendantidotes updates

    by: saber

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    1 : Antidotes Dr saber Lahmidi
    2 : What’s antidote? An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. The term ultimately derives from the Greek a?t?d?d??a? antididonai, "given against".
    3 : Atropine Atropine is a competitive muscarinic antagonist, used to treat : drug-induced bradycardia poisoning by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (organophosphate)
    4 : Ca++ Calcium is a cation that is essential for normal organ (including muscle and nerve tissue) and cell function.
    5 : Cyproheptadine Cyproheptadine is a histamine and serotonin antagonist with anticholinergic properties. It has been advocated for control of symptoms in mild-to-moderate serotonin syndrome.
    6 : Desferrioxamine An effective iron chelator that is used to: treat systemic iron toxicity or prevent the development of systemic toxicity following acute iron overdose
    7 : Dicobalt edetate This agent was developed as a cyanide antidote based on the known ability of cobalt to form stable complexes with cyanide. The severe direct toxic effects that occur when it is administered to a patient without cyanide poisoning limit use of this agent.
    8 : Digoxin Immune Fab These antibody fragments promptly and safely reverse the toxicity of digoxin and other cardiac glycosides.
    9 : Dimercaprol This rarely used intramuscular chelator is the most toxic of all chelating agents, and is reserved for the treatment of severe poisoning from: lead inorganic arsenic mercury.
    10 : Ethanol Competitively blocks the formation of toxic metabolites in toxic alcohol ingestions by having a higher affinity for the enzyme Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH). Its chief application is in methanol and ethylene glycol ingestions, although it has been used with other toxic alcohols. Ethanol is now regarded as the second choice antidote in those countries with access to the specific ADH blocker, fomepizole
    11 : Flumazenil Competitive benzodiazepine antagonist with a limited role in the management of benzodiazepine poisoning
    12 : Folinic Acid This agent is the active form of folic acid. It is routinely used for “folinic acid rescue therapy” following administration of high-doses of parenteral methotrexate in oncologic practice. Its applications in clinical toxicology are rather more limited.
    13 : Fomepizole Alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor used in management of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning.
    14 : Glucagon Polypeptide hormone secreted by the alpha-cells of the pancreas. Supra-physiological doses have previously been advocated in the management of beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker poisoning
    15 : Glucose Symptomatic hypoglycaemia resulting from toxic exposures must be immediately corrected by administration of glucose
    16 : Vitamin B12 Hydroxocobalamin is a vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) precursor. In high doses, it is an effective chelator of cyanide.
    17 : Insuline High-dose insulin therapy is a novel therapeutic intervention that produces a significant inotropic response in severe calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdose.
    18 : Intravenous lipid emulsion (IVLE) Intravenous lipid emulsion (IVLE) is a sterile emulsion of soyabean oil in water, used in parenteral nutrition. It is a novel antidote which requires further study but may have a role to play in the resuscitation of patients with refractory cardiac arrest induced by local anaesthetics or other lipophilic agents.
    19 : Methylene Blue Methylene Blue is the treatment of choice for symptomatic drug-induced methaemoglobinaemia
    20 : N-acetylcysteine (NAC) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the most widely used sulfhydryl donor in the treatment of paracetamol poisoning.
    21 : Naloxone This opioid antagonist is a useful adjunct in the management of opioid intoxication.
    22 : Octreotide Long-acting synthetic octapeptide analogue of somatostatin useful in the control of sulphonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia
    23 : Penicillamine Potent oral chelating agent for a broad range of heavy metals.
    24 : Physostigmine A reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor useful in the treatment of central anticholinergic delirium
    25 : Pralidoxime This is the oxime commonly used in Australia to reactivate acetylcholinesterase inhibition caused by organophosphates (OPs).
    26 : pyridoxine Intravenous pyridoxine is used in high doses to control the metabolic acidosis and seizures associated with isoniazid overdose and poisoning from other hydrazine compounds (ethylene glycol)
    27 : Sodium Bicarbonate Hyperosmolar sodium bicarbonate solutions are widely used in clinical toxicology both as an antidote to drugs that impair fast sodium channel function and as an alkalinising agent to manipulate drug distribution and excretion.
    28 : Sodium Calcium Edetate An intravenous heavy metal chelating agent primarily used in the treatment of severe lead poisoning including lead encephalopathy
    29 : Sodium Thiosulfate Sodium Thiosulfate enhances the endogenous cyanide detoxification capacity of the body. It is suitable to use alone in the treatment of mild to moderately severe cases of cyanide poisoning but should be used in conjunction with other antidotes in severe cyanide toxicity.
    30 : Succimer This orally active metal chelator is used to treat lead and other heavy metal poisoning.
    31 : Vitamin K An essential co-factor in the synthesis of clotting factors II, VII, IX and X. It is used for the reversal of coumadin-induced coagulopathy like warfarin
    32 : Thank you...

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