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    Add as Friendconservation of biodiversity

    by: gourav

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    2 : INTRODUCTION DEFINITION: Biodiversity is often used to describe all the species living in a particular area. If we consider this area at its largest scale - the entire world - then biodiversity can be summarized as "life on earth.“ Biological diversity (or biodiversity) was coined by Edward O. Wilson, amongst others, as an ecological concept to include all the living organisms of a given system, from the monera to the trees, annelids to mammals.
    3 : Levels of biodiversity Three levels of Biodiversity are: Ecosystem Species Genes ‘Specie Level is the most important level’.
    4 : ORIGIN OF BIODIVERSITY: Majorly when we talk about biodiversity, we talk about the variety of species of animals, birds, plants etc present in nature. Biodiversity found on earth today is the result of 4 billion years of evolution. The origin of life has not been definitely established by science, though evidence suggests that life may already have been well-established a few hundred million years after the formation of the earth. Until approximately 600 million years ago, all life consisted of bacteria and similar single-celled organisms. ORIGIN
    5 : Factors effecting biodiversity 1) CLIMATIC CHANGE: The global climate has changed repeatedly in the distant past. Although these events are typically associated with a degree of species loss, overall they often mark the beginning of a burst of new species. 2) GLOBAL WARMING: Global warming is altering the distribution and abundance of plant and animal species. Application of a basic law of ecology predicts that many will vanish if temperatures continue to rise.
    6 : 3) POLLUTION: Many human activities can, both directly and indirectly, result in pollution of some sort. Waste plastic in the oceans is mistaken for jellyfish by turtles and ingested, resulting in starvation and death. 4) DEFORESTATION: The loss of rainforests around the world, where many species of life are found will mean that potential knowledge, whether medicinal, sustenance sources, or evolutionary and scientific information etc. could be lost.
    7 : 5 )FOOD PRODUCTION: All the food in the world depends upon natural resources. Overexploitation leads to more and more destructive collection procedures such as blast fishing. 6) DWINDLING RESOURCES: The hunger for more resources among human beings has led down biodiversity highly. Ether it has to be sea animals, plants or land animals. Dwindling resources is the greatest reason for extinction of living species.
    8 : 7) HUMAN CONFLICTS: Whilst not the most obvious threat to biodiversity the natural casualties during a conflict are often greater than the human ones. The recent ground invasion of Afghanistan is believed to have, if not damaged then seriously impacted upon, one of the only known wild population of Snow leopards, one of the rarest animals in the world. Similarly, the American conflict with Vietnam resulted in Napalm being applied to an extensive area, entirely destroying vast Mangrove forests.
    9 : Species Depend On Each Other While there might be “survival of the fittest” within a given species, each species depends on the services provided by other species to ensure survival. It is a type of cooperation based on mutual survival and is often what a “balanced ecosystem” .
    10 : Today’s mass extinction Currently Earth is undergoing its sixth mass extinction—because of us. Humans have increased the extinction rate by a factor of 1,000. 1,100 species are known to have gone extinct in the past 400 years. The Red List, from the IUCN, lists species that today are facing high risks of extinction.
    11 : Causes of species extinction Primary causes spell “HIPPO”:
    12 : “HIPPO”: Habitat alteration The greatest cause of extinction today Accounts for 85% of population declines of birds and mammals Habitat change hurts most organisms because they are adapted to an existing habitat. Alteration due to: 1.Forest clearing 2.Urban development 3.Agriculture 4.Global climate change etc….
    13 : “HIPPO”: Invasive species Accidental or intentional introduction of exotic species to new areas Most do not establish or expand, but some do—likely because they are “released” from limitations imposed by their native predators, parasites, and competitors. In today’s globalizing world, invasive species have become perhaps the second-worst threat to native biota.
    14 : “HIPPO”: Invasive species Examples: Mosquito fish Zebra mussel Kudzu Asian long-horned beetle Rosy wolfsnail Cane toad Bullfrog Gypsy moth European starling Indian mongoose Caulerpa algae Cheat grass Brown tree snake
    15 : “HIPPO”: Pollution Air and water pollution; agricultural runoff, industrial chemicals, etc. Pollution does serious and widespread harm, but is not as threatening as the other elements of HIPPO.
    16 : “HIPPO”: Population growth Human population growth exacerbates every other environmental problem. Magnifies effects of the other elements of HIPPO: More people means more habitat change, more invasive species, more pollution, more overexploitation. Along with increased resource consumption, it is the ultimate reason behind proximate threats to biodiversity.
    17 : “HIPPO”: Overexploitation Two meanings: Overharvesting of species from the wild (too much hunting, fishing…) Overconsumption of resources (too much timber cutting, fossil fuel use…) Usually overexploitation is not the sole cause of extinction, but it often contributes in tandem with other causes.
    18 : Causes of species extinction In most cases, extinctions occur because of a combination of factors. e.g., current global amphibian declines are thought due to a complex combination of: Chemical contamination Disease transmission Habitat loss Ozone depletion and UV penetrance Climate change Synergistic interaction of these factors
    19 : Benefits of biodiversity Preserving biodiversity preserves ecosystem services, and directly provides things of pragmatic value to us. • Food, fuel, and fiber • Shelter and building materials • Air and water purification • Waste decomposition • Climate stabilization and moderation • Nutrient cycling • Soil fertility • Pollination • Pest control • Genetic resources
    20 : Benefits of biodiversity: Food security Many species not now commonly used for food could be. Genetic diversity within crop species and their relatives enhances our agriculture and provides insurance against losses of prevalent strains of staple crops.
    21 : Benefits of biodiversity: Medicine Many species can provide novel medicines; we don’t want to drive these extinct without ever discovering their uses. Ten of our top 25 drugs come directly from wild plants; the rest we developed because of studying the chemistry of wild species.
    22 : Benefits of biodiversity: Economic benefits For all nations, ecotourism can be a major contributor to the economy—especially for developing nations rich in biodiversity. Affluent tourists pay good money to see wildlife, novel natural communities, and protected ecosystems.
    23 : Benefits of biodiversity: “Biophilia” Biophilia = human love for and attachment to other living things; “the connections that human beings subconsciously seek out with the rest of life” e.g., Affinity for parks and wildlife Keeping of pets Valuing real estate with landscape views Interest in escaping cities to go hiking, birding, fishing, hunting, backpacking…
    24 : Conservation of biology Scientific discipline devoted to understanding the factors, forces, and processes that influence the loss, protection, and restoration of biological diversity within and among ecosystems. Applied and goal-oriented: Conservation biologists intend to prevent extinction. This discipline arose in recent decades as biologists grew alarmed at the degradation of natural systems they had spent their lives studying.
    25 : Equilibrium theory of island biogeography Explains how species diversity patterns arise on islands, as a result of: • Immigration • Extinction • Island size • Distance from the mainland The theory originally developed as basic science for oceanic islands. Then it was found to apply to islands of habitat (fragments) within terrestrial systems, for conservation biology.
    26 : Testing island biogeography theory The theory was first tested experimentally on small mangrove islands in the Florida Keys. All arthropods were extinguished from them with a pesticide, and then the researchers observed as species returned to the islands. Equilibrium numbers matched their predictions, supporting the theory.
    27 : Fragmentation “Islands” of interest to conservation biologists include forest fragments. Forest fragmentation occurs as continuous forest habitat gets broken up gradually. This leads to local extirpations of forest species, as fragments become too small to support them, and too distant to allow immigration.
    28 : Conservation approaches: Endangered species U.S. Endangered Species Act, 1973: • Restricts actions that would destroy endangered species or their habitats • Forbids trade in products from species • Prevents extinction, stabilizes and recovers populations
    29 : The ESA has had notable successes: Bald eagle Peregrine falcon 40% of all declining populations held stable However, there is much popular resentment against the ESA: Many citizens believe it will restrict their freedom if endangered species are found on their land. Canada therefore stressed cooperation with landowners and provincial governments in its recent Species at Risk Act.
    30 : Conservation approaches: Captive breeding Many endangered species are being bred in zoos, to boost populations and reintroduce them into the wild. This has worked so far for the California condor (in photo, condor hand puppet feeds chick so it imprints on birds, not humans). But this is worthless if there is not adequate habitat left in the wild.
    31 : Conservation approaches: Cloning A newly suggested approach is to use molecular techniques to clone endangered or even extinct species, raise them in zoos, and reintroduce them to the wild. Even if this succeeds technically, though, it will be worthless if there is not adequate habitat and protection left for them in the wild.
    32 : Conservation approaches: International treaties Various treaties have helped conserve biota. A major one is CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, prepared in 1973. It bans international trade and transport of body parts of endangered organisms.
    33 : Conservation approaches: International treaties The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), from the Rio Conference in 1992, aims to: • Conserve biodiversity • Use it sustainably • Ensure fair distribution of its benefits The CBD has been signed by 188 nations, but not by the United States.
    34 : Conservation approaches: Biodiversity hotspots Biodiversity hotspot = A biological hot spot is a natural environment with a high biodiversity that contains a large number of endangered species found no where else on Earth. Endangered golden lion tamarin, endemic to Brazil’s Atlantic rainforest, which has been almost totally destroyed
    35 : Global map of biodiversity hotspots, as determined by Conservation International
    36 : Challenges Population declines, extirpations, and extinctions result from habitat alteration, invasive species, pollution, population growth, and overexploitation. Fragmentation of habitats causes loss of species from habitat islands. Conservation biology is fighting an uphill battle to save species, habitats, and ecosystems.
    37 : Solutions Biologists are making strides in determining how many species inhabit our planet. We have to minimize habitat alteration, poaching, pollution, and overexploitation, but success will ultimately depend on halting human population growth. Fragmented habitats can be restored, but preserving areas before they are fragmented is best to avoid species loss. Conservation biology has developed numerous and varied ways to save species, habitats, and ecosystems.
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